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Department Library

2011

Matthew Nilsen (Capstone, August 2011, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

This report informs the reader of the field of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, offering necessary background information and describing the development of a wide range spectrometer that has been designed to meet the requirements of this field. EUV lithography is a process for etching nano-sized features on a computer chip using high-energy, short wavelength radiation. Creating a spectrometer for the EUV range is very difficult due to attenuation, and violent deposition of materials on sensitive optics. Our wide range spectrometer (WRS) was developed using a laser produce plasma (LPP) and a series of mirrors with a transmission grating. This design gives it a compact size, resistance to deposition and ability to resolve a very wide spectral range, all necessary in EUV lithography.

2010

Jershon Lopez (Senior Thesis, August 2010, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

We have developed a compact (6 x 20 cm), wide-range (2 - 200 nm) spectrometer for diagnosing laser-produced plasma. The characterization of one of its interchangeable transmission gratings (2000 lines/mm) is described in this report. The grating has zeroth and first order diffraction efficiencies of 9.2% and 9.9% respectively. Plasma spectra obtained with this grating are also included.

2009

Bryce Allred (Senior Thesis, April 2009, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

We developed and are calibrating an Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) transmission grating spectrometer for absolute intensity measurements over an extremely wide spectral range. Spectra from ablated Li, Fe, Sn, and W solid targets have been recorded and analyzed. We have acquired spectral resolution of 0.2 nm from wavelengths of 2 to 85 nm, with an overall spectral range of 2 to 250 nm. The device is very compact (60 x 200 mm) and ideal for absolute intensity measurements at 13.5 nm as well as for characterizing EUV lithography plasma sources. The CCD camera detector can be absolutely calibrated to equate the intensity recorded to electron energy and plasma temperature.

Jeffrey Kemp (Senior Thesis, April 2009, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

I participated in the development of a broadband spectrometer for the diag- nosis of high energy plasmas (2-250 nm). Spectra for Li, Fe, Sn, W, Mo, and Al have been obtained for these high energy transitions using a Toshiba TCD1304AP linear array CCD and an ORMINS analog to digital Converter. A new method for obtaining spectra has been implemented to facilitate the development of a computer interface that allows for real time analysis of high energy plasmas. This method replaces the analog to digital converter with a LeCroy Wavejet 354 oscilloscope. Spectra have been obtained using the LeCroy ScopeExplorer program. It is now possible to develop a computer in- terface in LabVIEW that will allow for the real time analysis of spectra in the 2-250 nm range.

2008

Nathan Gray (Senior Thesis, April 2008, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

We constructed and tested a spectrometer which can be used in applications such as plasma diagnostics for extreme ultraviolet lithography. Its design is simple and compact. Efficiency has been calculated. It provides real-time calibrated spectral information. We present a variety of plasma spectra that have been recorded with it.

2007

Matthew Harrison (Capstone, April 2007, Advisor: Larry Knight, Alexander Shevelko )

Abstract

Several conical spectrometers were built and used to monitor x-ray emission from laser produced plasmas. The plasmas were created using an Nd-YAG laser (.53 um/200 mJ/3 ns/1 Hz) on solid metal targets, principally magnesium and iron. Two detectors were used to record spectrum, a linear charge-coupled device (CCD) and EUV sensitive photographic film. Spectrum were recorded at a variety of distances from the target, from 3 cm to 90 cm. Observed wavelengths fall within the spectral range of 9-15 Å. A unique mounting structure and conical design were used in order to obtain spectra at a distance of 20 cm or more. Spectra acquired at close range have been calibrated for wavelength. When using a CCD as a detector, the spectrometers are capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information of the laser produced plasmas. Such a diagnostic capability is promising for automated processes that plan to use laser produced plasmas as an x-ray source, such as x-ray lithography.

Nathan Packard (Capstone, April 2007, Advisor: Larry Knight, Matt Asplund )

Abstract

A laser produced plasma provides a high powered pulse in the x-ray regime. This compact, low cost and reliable x-ray source has been harnessed and controlled to aid the lithography process. A conical spectrometer derived from Von Hamos’ cylindrical spectrometer provides multiple advantages over the cylinder. While similar to the cylinder, using mica crystal for a diffraction grating, the cone provides for greater flexibility. More room in the working space, greater protection of the grating, and increased flexibility in obtainable spectral range are significant advantages over the cylinder. All spectra previously obtained by the cylinder have been duplicated in the cone, as well as many others. Our ability to match Von Hamos’ spectrum provides great reliability and validity to our approach.

2004

Jon Johnson (Senior Thesis, August 2004, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

n/a

2002

Jared Estus Daily (Senior Thesis, April 2002, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Joshua A. Strong (Senior Thesis, December 2002, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

2001

Quan Wang (PhD Dissertation, April 2001, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

The Study of the interaction of laser-produced plasmas with a secondary wall has both practical and theoretical significance. The laser-produced plasmas are sources of highly-charged ions, fast electrons, as well as continuum and monochromatic x-ray radiation. Intense x-ray radiation also results when a nanosecond laser-produced plasma collides with a secondary wall positioned close to the target. The study of this interaction is essential to understand the laser-produced plasma expansion, shock wave formation, recombination, collisional excitation and many other transition processes. The laser plasma-wall interaction experiment has been carried out with laser pulses with vastly different time scales. In nanosecond experiment, the plasma-wall interaction was studied with varying target-wall distance. We conclude that the isothermal plasma expansion followed by the shock wave formation near the wall surface contributes to the intense x-ray radiation. We also have done some preliminary research in the femtosecond one. We suggest that a femtosecond laser-produced plasma could be an efficient fast electron and monochromatic x-ray source. We also provide some suggestions and predictions for further investigations.

2000

Sterling W Cornaby (Masters Thesis, August 2000, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

A preliminary instrument constructed at MOXTEK Inc. in Orem, UT is capable of capturing both XRF and XRD information using a CCD as the x-ray detector. NASA is funding the instrument’s construction because of its capabilities and small size; it could be used on future Mars missions for analysis of rocks. The instrument uses a CCD to capture both the energy information of an incoming x ray and the potion where the x ray hit. A powdered sample of mineral is placed in front of the CCD and then a collimated x-ray beam bombards the sample. The energy information is used to filter out the x-ray events caused by diffraction, thus enabling us to construct x-ray diffraction patterns. We are also able to use all the x-ray events to create an x-ray fluorescence spectrum from the data. The focus of this thesis is how the CCD gathers information and how this information is sorted.

1998

Jason W. Mumford (Senior Thesis, April 1998, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

1997

Douglas Paul Hansen (PhD Dissertation, August 1997, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

I examine the theory and fabrication of lamellar multilayer x-ray diffraction gratings. I use current theory based on the Kirchoff Integral for amplitude gratings and a new equation for phase gratings to analyze current technology multilayer grating performance (where the period/ λ exceeds 10). I examine the possible fabrication methods and define two general categories (additive: multilayer added to patterned substrate, subtractive: grating etched into multilayer). I conclude the additive approach is superior, leading to x-ray analogues to binary optics and holographic optical elements. I define an additive process in detail and demonstrate the serviceability of the key processes: thermal growth of silicon dioxide on silicon, lithography, combined plasma-etch and wet-etch. Multilayer fabrication difficulties on patterned substrates are identified, including: mushroom cap growth, and filleting in the grooves. Measurements done at NSLS on 2 amplitude gratings and 1 phase gratings are reported. The data is shown to be compatible with the Kirchoff theory.

1996

David Christiansen (Senior Thesis, May 1996, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Bryan R Olsen (Masters Thesis, December 1996, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

A high voltage pulse generator has been designed and constructed to drive a capillary discharge x-ray laser. The design specifications require that the device produce an electrical pulse through a small capillary with a 1 ns rise time and a peak current of 20 kA. Additionally, the device must be compact and relatively simple. The device was constructed using a three stage Marx generator for a primary energy store and a water filled transmission line to generate the fast pulse. When construction was completed, the device was tested extensively and found to meet or exceed the design criteria. Tests of the plasma excited by the current pulse also indicate that conditions favorable for lasing are being achieved using this pulse generator.

B. Scott Williams (Senior Thesis, August 1996, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

1995

Mitch Larsen (Senior Thesis, February 1995, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

1994

Jun Liu (PhD Dissertation, April 1994, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

The etched film/substrate structure can be used as the soft x-ray focusing reflector. A three-dimensional elastic finite element solver was developed to investigate the stress state and to predict the curvature. Features not revealed by previous two-dimensional models show the necessity of the three-dimensional treatment. The calculations give an approximately uniform biaxial stress everywhere, with reduced magnitude close to free edges. The bent shapes are parabolic curves. The three-dimensional simulation proved the correct implementation of the boundary conditions for the two-dimensional models. To ease the demands of the three-dimensional modeling for the hardware, two approximate methods were discussed. In a certain range, both methods give good quantitative results. Based on the three-dimensional simulation, the reflector’s surface quality was evaluated by performing ray tracing. The point spread function shows that the deviations alternately above and below the average curve widen the full-width-half-maximum. The FWHM is at most 20 μm.

Hans Konrad Pew (PhD Dissertation, December 1994, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

A water window soft x-ray microscope has been designed for high resolution imaging of still living cellular material. The multilayer mirrors have been identified as the critical component in achieving a useful instrument. Multilayers made from novel materials have been developed to meet this need. Two types of multiplayers have been developed – Inconel multilayers and uranium multilayers. Improvement over previous multilayers has been demonstrated for the Inconel/TiN system. U/Sc is expected to provide additional improvement.

Thomas Troy Stark (Masters Thesis, December 1994, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Capillary-discharge plasmas have recently become interesting as a possible gain medium for short wavelength lasers. To assist in the process of understanding capillary-discharge plasmas we have attempted to measure the current and temperature in a capillary discharge as a function of time. We have successfully constructed a capillary discharge device for our purpose. Many current measurements have been made which characterize our device and, to a lesser extent, the plasma created in a discharge. Spectroscopic measurements have been made in an attempt to infer a temperature from these measurements coupled with a successive ionization equilibrium model.

1993

Khader Mahmoud Hasan-Sajadeia (Masters Thesis, December 1993, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Atomically sharp tungsten tips were fabricated and sharpened by various electrochemical inexpensive cheap and simple machining techniques, and used to image HOP graphite in air and at room temperature. The tips were characterized using the TEM, SEM-EDXA and AES. The etching process is found to produce useful ultra-sharp tips for electric currents in the range of 10 – 100 mA per tip, and the reproducibility depends crucially on the stability of the metal-air-electrolytic interface during the last few seconds of the etching process. High etching currents and high ac frequencies result in blunt and contaminated tips that are easily recognizable under an optical microscope and the SEM. When using dc currents the immersion depth is recommended to be 2-4 mm. A simple formula to estimate the etching time was obtained empirically and some preliminary etching time analysis was made to justify it. The tip surface composition was characterize using SEM – EDXA and AES; it is found that the surface is contaminated with carbon, and oxygen. To repair the tips and produce oxide-free shanks, some careful we treatment is described in the recipe recommended.

Wael Ishaq Karain (PhD Dissertation, August 1993, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

P-type silicon field emission arrays have been manufactured with densities exceeding 10^5/cm^2. These tips have radii ranging from a few hundred angstroms to several microns. An oxidation sharpening technique was used to reduce the tip radii. The arrays have been found to be photosensitive in the reflection and transmission modes wit quantum efficiencies of about 1%. Theory predicts that this photocathode will have a response time of microseconds. Stable electron emission has been measured for several days. Damage of tips has been detected. This damage is attributed to arc formation due to an increase in the tip surface roughness brought about by residual ion bombardment. These arrays have been used to produce x rays for the first time. The aluminum K-alpha line was detected.

Steven Lee Short (Masters Thesis, August 1993, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

It is clearly understood that high concentrations of toxic pollutants can have severe, if not fatal, effects on humans. However, little is currently known of the adverse effects of light to moderate doses of the various pollutants generated by industrial processes. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of low level doses of CO, two specific analysis techniques that show promise in this application are FFT Raman Spectroscopy and FTIR, both of which are discussed and explored herein. This work includes both theoretical considerations and developments, as well as actual measurements of the levels of concentration of CO in blood samples, with favorable results in the FTIR case, however the advantages of extending Fast Fourier techniques to Raman Spectroscopy are not realized here, due primarily to the weakness of the scattered signal.

1992

Evan D. Hansen (Honors Thesis, April 1992, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Nathan Rhead Hilton (Honors Thesis, May 1992, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

1991

Yinghua Shi (PhD Dissertation, August 1991, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Chemical vapor deposited nickel thin films are used for the controlled bending of silicon wafers with (110) surface orientation into cylindrical shapes to be used as substrates of multilayer x-ray reflectors. A model is proposed to describe, and to predict the bending of the nickel/silicon structure. The elastic properties and the intrinsic stress of the nickel film on silicon have been determined by a least squares fit of the experimental data. Surface topography of the bent nickel/silicon structure was characterized for its global features, waviness, and roughness. Deviation of the global shape form an ideal cylindrical surface and structure surface waviness are the two major factors affecting the surface quality. Multilayer structures have been deposited on bent silicon wafers to produce prototype cylindrical x-ray reflectors.

1990

Wael Ishaq Karain (Masters Thesis, August 1990, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Photocathodes have many important applications such as night vision, image tubes, and electron sources. To attain high quantum efficiencies, they need to be treated with cesium and kept under pressure less than 10-10 torrs. This thesis investigates the possibility of using photosensitive silicon field emission arrays, which do not need the stringent conditions listed above for operation, as practical photoemitters. Electron emission was detected. However, the number if emitting points in each array is low due to uneven etching and problems with the photolithographic step.

Qi Wang (PhD Dissertation, December 1990, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

In the Raman spectrum of amorphous carbon (a-C) the low frequency features, in the 200-900 cm-1 region, are important indications of structural disorder. They may be related to the M-point zone-boundary phonon modes of graphite. The Raman study of annealed a-C samples reveals that there are dramatic differences in the crystallization process depending upon whether the sample was annealed in air or in an inert gas. The constrained deconvolution method has been introduced in the analysis of a-C Raman spectrum. The result has been used to verify the assumed relationship between Raman spectrum of a-C and phonon density of states of graphite. This method can also be used in the study of a-C structure and structural changes.

1989

Kevin J. Gray (PhD Dissertation, August 1989, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Some recently proposed applications of multilayer x-ray reflectors expose the multilayer to damaging fluxes of x-rays. This paper reviews proposed damage mechanisms and material selection techniques aimed at reducing the effects of damaging fluxes. Experiments were performed to measure the response of tungsten/carbon, and tungsten carbide/carbon multilayers to laser plasma x-ray fluxes of approximately 200 MW/cm2. These multilayers were found to maintain significant reflectivity for at least 1 ns. A computer program ROMULS has been developed which will predict the reflectivity vs. angle vs. tie behavior of multilayers in high flux applications. A description of this program is given. Comparison of the simulations and experimental results indicate that ROMULS underestimates the useful lifetime of multilayers by a factor of two or three. Suggestions for improvements in experimental and simulation techniques are given. A detailed guide for operation of ROMULS is presented.

Robert James Nelson (Masters Thesis, August 1989, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Experiments have been performed showing that the x-ray reflecting properties of thin film x-ray multilayer mirrors change when struck by an intense pulse of x rays. In this thesis an established computer code is used to compare predictions of x-ray reflecting properties of multilayers composed of various materials subjected to degrading fluences of x rays. The stimulated deforming radiation strikes the multilayers at normal incidence with a fluence of 0.16 j/cm2 in a 1 ns square wave pulse at a wavelength of 9.5 Å. The properties examined are absolute reflectivity, shift in peak reflectivity angle, and angular full width half max. Predictions are formed for the material combinations of WC/C, TaC/C, Ni/Li, Re/La, Ta/Sc, W/Yb, Ta/Yb, Ta/Dy, Ta/Y, Pb/Si. The predicted performance ratings for these multilayers subjected to pulsed high x-ray fluxes are roughly in the order listed above, but are more fully explained in this thesis.

Toby Sean Ross (Masters Thesis, August 1989, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Patterned image multilayer optics represents a significant improvement in several areas of x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet optics. Applications could include high resolution spectroscopy, hard ultra-violet and x-ray laser output coupling and x-ray imaging. Until now, only multilayer amplitude gratings have been made. The research for this thesis entails the development of a microfabrication technique suitable for multilayer phase structures and the development of a computer model to aid in implementing near-field spatial-frequency doubling, a microlithographic technique.

1987

Paul S Mills (Masters Thesis, December 1987, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Very primitive display holograms of two and three-dimensional objects have been created using the technique of zone plate coded imaging. The reconstructed real images focus a few meters from the hologram with typical heights of a few millimeters. Reconstructions of large extended objects have been obtained by optically reducing the objects first with negative lenses and then allowing their reduced images to cast shadows. The reconstructions are hindered by poor resolution, but that should improve with the use of larger apertures. Attempts at extending the process to large extended objects directly using a new technique of artificial laser speckle have so far failed, due mostly to the low diffraction efficiencies of the off-axis “grains”. The techniques developed so far show that within a very broad range of subjects, display-like holograms can be created without lasers, vibration-free tables, nor high resolution film. This experimental work is based on an in-depth analysis of zone plates and holograms presented at the beginning of this work. The use of the exact form of the zone plate formula in this analysis has led to special graphical techniques and newly derived formulas that predict interesting behaviors for these devices. The most startling discovery seems to hint at the formation of holograms that would not rely on any diffraction or interference affects whatsoever during the final reconstruction stage. Research into the historical background of this topic has uncovered many interesting anecdotes which are included in this work.

1986

George Samuel Cross (Masters Thesis, December 1986, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Multilayer mirrors are a new and important approach to x-ray optics. They are made by depositing alternating thin layers of two materials with different refractive indices on a smooth substrate. At a specific wavelength these mirrors are highly reflective due to coherent addition of weak reflections at the interfaces. After fabrication of the multilayers their performance must be evaluated and compared to design specifications. This testing can also help to optimize the fabrication techniques. Multilayers are made for a wide rand of x-ray wavelengths so the test source must be capable of similar spectral range. Synchrotron radiation meets this criterion but due to limited availability a more convenient x-ray source is desirable. Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) which provides a wide range of discrete wavelengths with low bremsstrahlung was chosen. A description is given of a PIXE facility at B.Y.U. based on a Van de Graaff proton accelerator. Profiles of reflectivity vs. wavelength and reflectivity vs. angle can be obtained with 0.01 0.0002 resolution.

Xiao Mao Zhang (Masters Thesis, August 1986, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

There are many possible approaches to modeling the reflection of x-rays from evaporated/sputtered multilayers. It is shown that the x-ray optical multiplayer theory developed by Ewald-von Laue for a stratified medium such as a multilayer. It is shown the image position and intensity for different curved LSM (a cylindrical multilayer, a parabolic multilayer and a hyperbolic multilayer). These three models are compared with them. The computer analyses of these configuration as x-ray optical elements are discussed.

1984

Dwight Michael Walsh (PhD Dissertation, December 1984, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Analytical methods are presented or transverse mode analysis of a laser resonator having spherical mirrors with a Gaussian reflectivity profile. The modes of such resonators have a form similar to that of the conventional Gaussian modes, but it is necessary to define a secondary beam parameter in order to meet the self-consistency requirement for resonator modes. The methods presented are applied to a simple symmetrical resonator and a more realistic regenerative amplifier cavity. Stability if both the conventional complex beam parameter and the secondary beam parameter are discussed. It is predicted mathematically that small perturbations in the secondary beam parameter will cause the intensity profile of the higher order modes to evolve into that of the fundamental mode. Mode losses and discrimination are also discussed. It is found that effective transverse mode discrimination requires high losses in the fundamental mode.

1982

Grant Osmond Jr Cook (PhD Dissertation, December 1982, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

The details of the development of a new two-dimensional MHD code are given. Included in the one-fluid, two-temperature model are the classical Braginskii transport coefficients with viscous effects ignored, Saha-Boltzmann dissociation and partial ionization physics, and a radiation loss mechanism. Physical boundary conditions are used to close the system of equations. A complex set of current-carrying coils drive the plasma. Spline collocation spatially discretizes the overall system, and a “one-leg” method integrates the resulting ODEs in time. To solve the system, the driving coils are time split from the plasma model, and the matrix representation of the latter is split to yield two efficient “one-dimensional” problems. A generalized Newton model is proposed solving the nonlinear discretized plasma equations. The code development problem is then addressed more generally by automating the algebraic work required to perform the discretization’s and other transformations of the initial equations. With considerable capability being added by this work, MACSYMA was used to perform the algebraic task. Further code development tasks which are not yet automated are also discussed.

David P. Gaines (PhD Dissertation, August 1982, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Ten to fort Angstrom x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas was studied in order to determine pertinent plasma parameters, study plasma-emission characteristics under varying laser/target conditions, and in order to generate characterization data on Layered Synthetic Microstructures (LSMs). Plasma temperatures were determined and compared with temperatures obtained by other workers. The calculated temperatures were consistent, but precise temperature determination was not possible because density information was not calculable. The emission characteristics showed surprisingly little dependence on target parameters or laser intensity. The integrated relativity in line width of the LSMs, as determined from this research, matched values predicted form theoretical computations. In addition, the focusing ability of LSMs was demonstrated.

Raymond Perkins (PhD Dissertation, August 1982, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

There are many possible approaches to modeling the reflection of x-rays from evaporated/sputtered multilayers. It is shown that the x-ray dynamical diffraction theory developed by Ewald and von Laue reduces to optical multilayer theory for a stratified medium such as a multilayer. It is also shown how the dynamical x-ray diffraction theory as developed by Darwin and Prins may be derived from multilayer theory with the result that the Darwin-Prins theory maybe derived from the Ewald-von Laue theory. The result is a unification of these three theories. Two models of the reflection of x-rays from multilayers are developed. One applies optical multilayer theory to a perfect multilayer. The individual layers in a multilayer may be in a crystalline state with proper crystal orientation. A model hat predicts reflection from a multilayer superlattice and the atomic lattice is presented. These two models are compared with each other and with two models developed by others. Experimental results are discussed and compared with theory.

Ole Johnny Petersen (PhD Dissertation, August 1982, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

Layered Synthetic Microstructures (LSM’s) used for x-ray diffraction have roughness which copies the substrate roughness, and individual uncorrelated layer roughness. Near grazing incidence all this roughness is uncorrelated to the x-rays. This simplifies the modeling and reduces the number of model parameters. A rough-multilayer model is used to determine LSM parameters from experimental data by comparing reflection intensities over several orders. This method is used to determine the dispersion correction to the scattering factor of vanadium near the K-absorption edge.

1981

Stanley J Sheldon (Masters Thesis, April 1981, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

A theoretical model for the laser induced thermal lens effect in weakly absorbing media is derived. The model predicts the intensity variation in the far field of the laser beam in the presence of the lensing medium and takes into account the aberrant nature of the thermal lens. An experiment is described which was designed to verify the model and which then was used to make measurements of dn/dq, the change of refractive index with absorbed heat per unit volume, on mixtures of water and ethylene glycol.

Gary Lane Stradling (Masters Thesis, April 1981, Advisor: Larry Knight )

Abstract

This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown.