Submitting Answers


Numerical answers may be given in standard or scientific notation:
  • -1.57
  • 3.853e-23
  • Do not put commas in numbers. Use 23456 not 23,456.


  • You may refer to the constants and fixed variables in any problem by name:
  • Pi and pi are always 3.14159265...
  • 3*e0


  • Operations
  • Arithmetic operations are * / + -
  • Implicit multiplication is not recognized. Use 3*a, not 3a. Use g*(H+h), not g(H+h).
  • Powers use ^, as x^2 is x2
  • Order of operation: ^ precedes * or / which in turn precedes + or -. x^2/3 and x^(2/3) are different.
  • Use parentheses liberally to avoid ambiguity and errors.


  • Functions
  • Square root: either sqrt(x) or x^(1/2) are OK.
  • ex is exp(x)
  • ln(x) is log(x) or ln(x)
  • log10(x) is log10(x)


  • Trigonometric Functions
  • Note that angles are always given in radians!

  • sin(x) is sin(x), etc.
  • sin-1(x) is asin(x), etc.
  • tan-1(y/x) can also be written as atan2(x,y), etc. This form is superior when there can be a question of quadrants.


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