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The late 18th century and early 19th century was a period of assimilation.

New and powerful mathematical techniques were being developed.

These new techniques were applied to many new systems.

Newtonian mechanics was still at the heart of these applications.

Applied physics fueled the industrial revolution.

Light was found to be a wave.

Heat, electricity, and magnetism were the topics of new, fundamental research.

Modern chemistry was beginning to take shape as chemical elements were being isolated and described.