Physics 137

Supplementary Information

Note: Some links to specific articles may only be available from a computer located on the BYU campus due to subscription agreements.

American Meteorology Society Glossary of Terms

Alistair Fraser's Bad Meteorology page
World Weather 2010 project at UIUC

NASA Visible Earth web site

The visible earth web site has all sorts of satellite pictures and movies of phenomenon on the earth. If it can be seen from space you will probably find it here.

The Ultimate Weather Resource Guide is aimed towards those who are traveling or relocating and wish to investigate the weather and climate of various locations. There are lots of links to useful resources here.

The topics are arranged according to the chapters in Ahrens textbook "Essentials of Meteorology" and the order that I have used those chapters in the introductory meteorology class.

Chapter 1, Earth's Atmosphere

Time lapse video of the sky including lots of phenomena

Chapter 15, Light, Color, and Atmospheric Optics

Atmospheric Optics Summary Sheet
Hyperphysics information on vision and light
Some details on the human eye (from hyperphysics)
The Belt of Venus "Shadow set" The setting of the shadow of the earth
Another picture of the Belt of Venus, an effect due to atmospheric scattering and the shadow of the earth.
"A Triangular Shadow of a Large Volcano" (an interesting optical effect similar to the Belt of Venus)
An article on why the sky is blue - including the response of the human eye ( American Journal of Physics, July 2005, Volume 73, Issue 7, pp. 590-597
A beautiful misshapen moon caused by varying refraction in the atmosphere
Weather and Atmospheric Photography
Crepuscular Rays, Low Resolution Pictures (smaller, faster transfer)
Crepuscular Rays, High Resolution Pictures
More Crepuscular Rays
Another Variation on Crepuscular Rays
Anticrepuscular Rays
Crepuscular Rays over Lake Michigan
Anticrepuscular Rays Over Colorado
Sky Polarization (low resolution)
Sky Polarization (high resolution)
The Novaya-Zemlya effect
An unusual "double mirage" at sunrise (cause and validity uncertain)
A green flash on the sun
Green flash and refractive effects on the full moon
A red flash due to refractive effects on the full moon
Movie of a green flash on the moon from Italy
A sun pillar over Maine
A spectacular sun pillar over Lake Tahoe
A sun pillar over North Carolina
Sun dogs over the Very Large Array
A halo from the NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day Archives
A halo around the sun near Gunlock, Utah
Sun dogs and a 22o halo from Helsinki, Finland.
A really beautiful halo, pillar, and sun dogs from Stockholm, Sweden.
Multiple halos in Finland due to pyramidal ice crystals
A circumhorizontal arc over Ohio
A "fog bow" near San Francisco (this is similar to a glory; it is caused by the very small water droplets in the fog)
A "fog bow" near Ocean Beach, CA.
A crescent moon from space - refraction and scattering from a different viewpoint
The earth at twilight
A colorful lunar fog bow and Mars
A sun pillar in Wyoming.
A glory viewed from a mountain top.
A pileus iridescent cloud over Ethiopia.
A sun pillar over Ontario.
Time Lapse Clouds and Sky Over the Canary Islands - this includes the development and changes in clouds, a lenticular cloud, clouds undulating like waves on the ocean, clouds flowing over a mountain ridge, and a beautiful green flash on the sun, among many other things
An unusual sunrise! I'm not sure how to categorize this picture. It may be partially due to a mirage, or thin clouds, or some interesting refractive effects. Or it could be all three. But it is really fascinating to look at.
Northern green flash
This is a picture of the transit of Venus across the sun in June 2012 taken near sunrise over the Baltic Sea. However, it also includes a lot of color variation due to atmospheric scattering as well as a faint green flash on the top of the sun.
Another picture of the transit of Venus across the sun in June 2012, at sunrise over the Black Sea this time. It also includes color due to atmospheric scattering as well as distortion of the sun due to atmospheric refraction.
Green flash and the Super Moon - an impressive green flash as the moon rises.
Fata Morgana - a possibly Titanic mirage
Anticrepuscular rays over Wyoming
A February moon's halo
The Belt of Venus over Mercedes, Argentina
Video of jumping sundogs over thunderclouds - be sure to read the explanation regarding what appears to be happening here

Chapter 2, Warming and Cooling Earth and its Atmosphere

The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas
Why Does the Sun Shine (They Might Be Giants version of "The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas")
The Sun is a Miasma of Incandescent Plasma (They Might Be Giants correction to "The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (Physics Today, January 2003)
An excellent picture of a sunspot and solar flares
Another picture of a solar flare
A side-on view of a sunspot from the Hinode satellite
A fascinating video of the sun from the Hinode satellite
A picture of a sunspot in ultraviolet light, taken September 2000
Picture of the solar eclipse from 1 August 2008. This composite picture of the solar corona provides an excellent illustration of the magnetic field of the sun because the flowing plasma follows, and highlights, the field lines.
The sun unleashed - a massive coronal ejection on 7 June 2011.
Sunspots and silhouettes
Sunspot group 1429
A closeup of sunspot group 1429
Sunspots and the silhouette of Neuhaus castle in Igersheim, Germany
A nice picture of an aurora from Colorado
A green aurora over Lake Superior
Northern Lights over Prelude Lake
Aurora over Alaska
A starry night of Iceland (beautiful aurora)
Aurora over Greenland
Aurora near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Pink aurora over Crater Lake
Volcano and aurora in Iceland
Aurora over Raufarhöfn, Iceland
Aurora over Iceland
Video of aurora over Norway
A red aurora over Australia
Aurora over Sweden (a unique view)
January aurora over Norway
A full sky aurora over Norway
A memorable aurora over Norway
A video from the International Space Station that includes beautiful aurora
Aurora in October in Canada
A time lapse video of the aurora, 9 October 2012, from San Juan Island just north of Puget Sound in Washington

The seasons
Variations in solar insolation between seasons

Chapter 3, Air Temperature

Daily temperature cycle

Contrails reduce daily temperature range (Nature v. 418, p. 601, 8 August 2002; doi:10.1038/418601a)

Chapter 4, Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds

Comparison of temperature, rel. humidity, and dewpoint

Chapter 5, Cloud Development and Precipitation

Fires, Convection, and Clouds

An article in Physical Review Letters regarding an experiment that demonstrated cloud droplets seeded by the passage of a large raindrop

A great site on snowflakes and atmospheric ice crystals

Article on U of U researchers studying cloud formation and effects

Chapter 6, Air Pressure and Winds

Daily pressure variations: Veritasium and SmarterEveryDay demonstrate the rotation of water in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres due to the Coriolis effect.

Chapter 7, Atmospheric Circulations

Research on Rotors
Satellite view of a dust devil on Mars
A large rock that has been pushed across a dry lakebed by high winds
El Niño
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
North Atlantic Oscillation
Arctic Oscillation

Chapter 8, Air Masses, Fronts, and Middle-Latitude Cyclones

Chapter 9, Weather Forecasting

Chapter 10, Thunderstorms and Tornadoes


Chapter 11, Hurricanes

Chapter 12, Global Climate

Utah weather extremes
Recent significant Utah weather events
Western Region Comparative Climate Data
Access to other Regional Climate Centers

Chapter 13, Earth's Changing Climate

Chapter 14, Air Pollution