Physics 137

Supplementary Information

Note: Some links to specific articles may only be available from a computer located on the BYU campus due to subscription agreements.

American Meteorology Society Glossary of Terms

Alistair Fraser's Bad Meteorology page
World Weather 2010 project at UIUC

NASA Visible Earth web site

The visible earth web site has all sorts of satellite pictures and movies of phenomenon on the earth. If it can be seen from space you will probably find it here.

Career Information: A Guide to Meteorology Resources

If you are interested in a career in meteorology, you may want to check this site out. They have quite a bit of information on various career options. They also have a lot of links to other meteorology resources and articles.

The Ultimate Weather Resource Guide is aimed towards those who are traveling or relocating and wish to investigate the weather and climate of various locations. There are lots of links to useful resources here.

The topics are arranged according to the chapters in Ahrens textbook "Meteorology Today" and the order that I have used those chapters in the introductory meteorology class.

Chapter 1, The Earth and Its Atmosphere

Time lapse video of the sky including lots of phenomena

Chapter 2, Energy: Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere

The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas
Why Does the Sun Shine (They Might Be Giants version of "The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas")
The Sun is a Miasma of Incandescent Plasma (They Might Be Giants correction to "The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (Physics Today, January 2003)
An excellent picture of a sunspot and solar flares
Another picture of a solar flare
A side-on view of a sunspot from the Hinode satellite
A fascinating video of the sun from the Hinode satellite
A picture of a sunspot in ultraviolet light, taken September 2000
Picture of the solar eclipse from 1 August 2008. This composite picture of the solar corona provides an excellent illustration of the magnetic field of the sun because the flowing plasma follows, and highlights, the field lines.
The sun unleashed - a massive coronal ejection on 7 June 2011.
Sunspots and silhouettes
Sunspot group 1429
A closeup of sunspot group 1429
Sunspots and the silhouette of Neuhaus castle in Igersheim, Germany
Magnetosphere
A nice picture of an aurora from Colorado
A green aurora over Lake Superior
Northern Lights over Prelude Lake
Aurora over Alaska
A starry night of Iceland (beautiful aurora)
Aurora over Greenland
Aurora near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Pink aurora over Crater Lake
Volcano and aurora in Iceland
Aurora over Raufarhöfn, Iceland
Aurora over Iceland
Video of aurora over Norway
A red aurora over Australia
Aurora over Sweden (a unique view)
January aurora over Norway
A full sky aurora over Norway
A memorable aurora over Norway
A video from the International Space Station that includes beautiful aurora
Aurora in October in Canada
A time lapse video of the aurora, 9 October 2012, from San Juan Island just north of Puget Sound in Washington

Chapter 3, Seasonal and Daily Temperatures

Sunrise/Sunset time calculator from U. S. Naval Observatory
Solstices, Equinoxes, Aphelion, Perihelion dates and times
Daily temperature cycle
About an analemma
An analemma from Greece.
An example of how sunrise location moves with season
Variation of the sun's trail across the sky from 21 June to 21 December 2011, taken at the University of Hertfordshire

An interesting chart on hypothermia effects

Chapter 20, Light, Color, and Atmospheric Optics

Atmospheric Optics Summary Sheet
Hyperphysics information on vision and light
Some details on the human eye (from hyperphysics)
The Belt of Venus "Shadow set" The setting of the shadow of the earth
Another picture of the Belt of Venus, an effect due to atmospheric scattering and the shadow of the earth.
"A Triangular Shadow of a Large Volcano" (an interesting optical effect similar to the Belt of Venus)
An article on why the sky is blue - including the response of the human eye ( American Journal of Physics, July 2005, Volume 73, Issue 7, pp. 590-597
A beautiful misshapen moon caused by varying refraction in the atmosphere
Rainbows:
Weather and Atmospheric Photography
Crepuscular Rays, Low Resolution Pictures (smaller, faster transfer)
Crepuscular Rays, High Resolution Pictures
More Crepuscular Rays
Another Variation on Crepuscular Rays
Anticrepuscular Rays
Crepuscular Rays over Lake Michigan
Anticrepuscular Rays Over Colorado
Sky Polarization (low resolution)
Sky Polarization (high resolution)
The Novaya-Zemlya effect
An unusual "double mirage" at sunrise (cause and validity uncertain)
A green flash on the sun
Green flash and refractive effects on the full moon
A red flash due to refractive effects on the full moon
Movie of a green flash on the moon from Italy
A sun pillar over Maine
A spectacular sun pillar over Lake Tahoe
A sun pillar over North Carolina
Sun dogs over the Very Large Array
A halo from the NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day Archives
A halo around the sun near Gunlock, Utah
Sun dogs and a 22o halo from Helsinki, Finland.
A really beautiful halo, pillar, and sun dogs from Stockholm, Sweden.
Multiple halos in Finland due to pyramidal ice crystals
A circumhorizontal arc over Ohio
A "fog bow" near San Francisco (this is similar to a glory; it is caused by the very small water droplets in the fog)
A "fog bow" near Ocean Beach, CA.
A crescent moon from space - refraction and scattering from a different viewpoint
The earth at twilight
A colorful lunar fog bow and Mars
A sun pillar in Wyoming.
A glory viewed from a mountain top.
A pileus iridescent cloud over Ethiopia.
A sun pillar over Ontario.
Time Lapse Clouds and Sky Over the Canary Islands - this includes the development and changes in clouds, a lenticular cloud, clouds undulating like waves on the ocean, clouds flowing over a mountain ridge, and a beautiful green flash on the sun, among many other things
An unusual sunrise! I'm not sure how to categorize this picture. It may be partially due to a mirage, or thin clouds, or some interesting refractive effects. Or it could be all three. But it is really fascinating to look at.
Northern green flash
This is a picture of the transit of Venus across the sun in June 2012 taken near sunrise over the Baltic Sea. However, it also includes a lot of color variation due to atmospheric scattering as well as a faint green flash on the top of the sun.
Another picture of the transit of Venus across the sun in June 2012, at sunrise over the Black Sea this time. It also include color due to atmospheric scattering as well as distortion of the sun due to atmospheric refraction.
Green flash and the Super Moon - an impressive green flash as the moon rises.
Fata Morgana - a possibly Titanic mirage
Anticrepuscular rays over Wyoming
A February moon's halo
The Belt of Venus over Mercedes, Argentina
Video of jumping sundogs over thunderclouds - be sure to read the explanation regarding what appears to be happening here

Chapter 4, Atmospheric Humidity

Comparison of temperature, rel. humidity, and dewpoint

Chapter 5, Condensation: Dew, Fog, and Clouds

Clouds:

Chapter 6, Stability and Cloud Development

Fires, Convection, and Clouds

Chapter 7, Precipitation

A great site on snowflakes and atmospheric ice crystals
Article on U of U researchers studying cloud formation and effects

Chapter 8, Air Pressure and Winds

Daily pressure variations:

Chapter 9, Wind: Small Scale and Local Systems

Research on Rotors
Satellite view of a dust devil on Mars
A large rock that has been pushed across a dry lakebed by high winds

Chapter 10, Wind: Global Systems

El Niño
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
North Atlantic Oscillation
Arctic Oscillation

Chapter 11, Air Masses and Fronts

Chapter 12, Middle-Latitude Cyclones

Chapter 13, Weather Forecasting

Chapter 14, Thunderstorms

Chapter 15, Tornadoes

Chapter 16, Hurricanes

Chapter 19, Air Pollution

Chapter 17, Global Climate

Chapter 18, The Earth's Changing Climate