- QR15: Which clouds are associated with each of the following
characteristics: (a) lightning; (b) heavy rain showers; (c) mackerel sky;
(d) mares' tails; (e) halos; (f) light continuous rain or snow; (g)
hailstones; (h) anvil top.
- QT15: The sky is overcast and it is raining. Explain how you could
tell if the cloud above you is a nimbostratus or a cumulonimbus.
- QT2: Are the bases of convective clouds generally higher during the day
or the night? Explain.
- QT4: Use Fig. 4.13b, p. 94 (Chapter 4), to help you explain why the
bases of cumulus clouds, which form from rising thermals during the summer,
increase in height above the surface as you move due west of a line that
runs north-south through central Kansas.
- QT5: For least polluted conditions, what would be the best time of day
for a farmer to burn agricultural debris?
- PE2: If the height of a cumulus cloud is 1000 m above the surface, and
the dew point at the earth's surface beneath the cloud is 20oC,
determine the air temperature at the earth's surface beneath the cloud.
- PE5: In Fig. 6.30, (p. 161), a radiosonde is released and sends
back temperature data as shown in the diagram. (This is the environment
(a) Calculate the environmental lapse rate from the surface up to 3000 m.
(b) What type of atmospheric stability does the sounding indicate?
Suppose the wind is blowing from the west and a parcel of surface air with a
temperature of 10oC and a dew point of 2oC begins to
rise upward along the western (windward) side of the mountain.
(c) What is the relative humidity of the air parcel at 0 m (pressure 1013
mb) before rising? (Hint: See Chapter 4, p. 98.)
(d) As the air parcel rises, at approximately what elevation would
condensation begin and a cloud start to form?
(e) What is the air temperature and dew point of the rising air at the base
of the cloud?
(f) What is the air temperature and dew point of the rising air inside the
cloud at an elevation of 3000 m? (Use moist adiabatic rate of
6oC per 1000 m.)
(g) At an altitude of 3000 m, how does the air temperature inside the cloud
compare with the air temperature outside the cloud, as measured by the
radiosonde? What type of atmospheric stability (stable or unstable) does
this suggest? Explain.
(h) At an elevation of 3000 m, would you expect the cloud to continue to
develop vertically? Explain.
(i) What would be the name of the cloud that is forming?
Suppose a parcel of air inside the cloud descends from the top of the
mountain at 3000 m (pressure 700 mb) down the eastern (leeward) side of the
mountain to an elevation of 0 m (pressure 1013 mb).
(j) If the descending air warms at the dry adiabatic rate from the top of
the mountain all the way down to 0 m, what is the sinking air's temperature
and dew point when it reaches 0 m?
(k) What would be the relative humidity of the sinking air at 0 m? (Hint:
See Chapter 4, p. 98.)
(l) What accounts for the sinking air being warmer at the base of the
mountain on the eastern side?
(m) Explain why the sinking air is drier (its dew point is lower) on the
eastern side at 0 m.