DAVID D. ALLRED

                                                                      N265 ESC

                                                          Brigham Young University

                                                                Provo, UT  84602

                                                                  (801) 422-3489

                                                                     July 2017

CURRENT RESEARCH: orcid.org/0000-0001-6163-518X

EDUCATION

1977 Ph.D., Physics and Physical Chemistry, Princeton University (First combined degree granted between the Departments of Physics and Chemistry in 15 years.) Dissertation: Accurate Eigenvalue Expressions for Central Power Law Potentials with Applications to Nuclear States.

1973 M.S., Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

1971 B.S., Chemistry (ACS Certificate), Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah (Magna cum laude, also with highest honors from the Honors Program.)

PERSONAL

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY (since graduate school)

1993 to present Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University

1987-1993 Associate Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, BYU

1980- 1987 Research Scientist & Group Leader, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Troy, Michigan

1980    Research Assistant Professor, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson

1977-79 Research Associate (Solar Energy)     Optical Sciences Center, The University of Arizona

1977 National Science Foundation Energy Related Post-Doctoral Fellowship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Appleton/White Solid State group, Ion Beams)

 

STUDENT THESIS AND DISSERTATIONS: for complete list see below.

Dissertations (Ph.D.) 3 (Allred advisor); Masters 13; Senior and Honors thesis 13
Graduate committees since 2010

 

GRANTS

Current: 2017  (internal) Mentoring Environment Grant    "Metal CNT-M, New Materials for Microfabrication". 20K$ 2016 renewed for 2017 (College funded) to RR Vanfleet. I am assisting.
(external) ALS-08378 "Measurement of Refractive Indices of Materials for Broadband mirrors-UVOIR Space-Based Observatories"  Beamtime at the Advanced Light Source ~5-8 shifts/ year August 2016- July 2018

"Exploring a-Si as a protective barrier layers on Broad-band aluminum front-surface mirrors WAESO (ASU)

 

Recent Past:

2015-16 NASA Rocky MT Space Grant Consortium National College and Fellowship Program: $15,043: Critical First Steps towards Allowing Aluminum's Far UV reflectance to shine forth in the Broadband VUV for Space-based Instruments ;

 (internal) Mentoring Environment Grant    "Metal CNT-M, New Materials for Microfabrication". 20K$ 2014 renewed for 2015 (College funded) with RR Vanfleet.
(external) ALS-06780 "Measurement of the Refractive Indices & Scattering from Oxides which can Hydrolyze & Roughen,"  Beamtime at the Advanced Light Source ~5-8 shifts/ year August 2014- July 2016

"Use of Evolutionary Algorithm to Optimize Reflectance of an  WAESO (ASU

2014-15 NASA Rocky MT Space Grant Consortium Infrastructure Grant $22,000: Building a Cadre of Students Competent in Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

Previous: Principle investigator for over 20 projects in the areas of EUV mirrors for space application and minority student education using undergraduate research and peer study groups  See below.

 

RESEARCH PRESENTATIONS: Allred and students (See more complete list below)

 

CLASSES TAUGHT/ COURSES DEVELOPED

All classes in BYU's introductory calculus-based physics series: Namely, mechanics (Physics 121), Electricity and magnetism class (Physics 220), Physics 123, optics, heat, matter, relativity. Physics 222: Modern Physics

General education physical science (PS 100)

 

Four graduate physics classes developed:

            513R- Nanostructures, surfaces and interfaces-taught twice with William Evenson

            585- Thin film physics- taught 11 times

            711R: Optical processes of semiconductors. 

            671- X-ray optics- taught five times

History and Philosophy of Science

In the University Honors Program: 201H, 202H and 241H. This is a team taught, two- semester, nine-credit hour, combination history of civilization/science colloquium class.

 

OTHER PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES

Visiting Scientist at CINVESTAV in Mexico (The Centro de investigacion y estudios avanzados del instituto politechnico nacional is the center for advanced scientific and engineering studies for Mexico's second largest university, the national polytechnic institute).  The granted was partially funded by CONACYT which is Mexico's version of the National Science Foundation.  I was in Mexico in the later half of 1993.  Sabbatical work focused on porous silicon and the nontraditional ways to cook tortillas.

Attend six NSF Chautauqua courses for Teachers (see below).

 

PROFESSIONAL CITIZENSHIP AND INVOLVEMENT

Topical editor for Optical Engineering, 2005-present

Associate editor for the Journal of X ray Science and Technology. 1997-

I referee approximately ten papers for publication each year for J. of Vac. Sci. and Technology, Applied Optics, J. of Applied Physics, J of X-ray Sci. and Technology, Optics Letters and others. I serve on the board of directors of WAESO/Mountain States Alliance of the NSF sponsored WAESO.

I review over 10 faculty-directed undergraduate research proposals each year for WAESO.

 

MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES 

 

Materials Research Society; American Vacuum Society; SPIE`s soft x-ray working group. And occasionally: UT-ID section of the AAPT (American Association of Physics Teachers); American Physical Society; International Thermoelectric Society; and Phi Kappa Phi 

 

LEADERSHIP

Co-founder of the International Thermoelectric Society

He has been on the boards of directors of two technology companies.  Moxtek from 1987 to 1993 and Usertrust (internet privacy, identity and security) from 1999 to the present. 

Has served on the board of directors of WAESO/Mountain States Alliance of the NSF sponsored WAESO. Review about 12 faculty directed undergraduate research proposals each year for WAESO. 

 

HONORS

Alcuin Award 1997-2000. This is a three award to an outstanding teacher of general or honors education; Serendipity Award from the Y-Weekend Committee.

Predoctoral: NSF Post-doctoral Energy-Related Fellowship;  Woodrow Wilson Fellowship; Eastman Kodak Scientific Award, NSF Pre-doctoral Fellowship, Kennecott Scholarship; Danforth Foundation Fellowship honorable mention, Marathon Oil Company Cash Award and Four Year Scholarship; National Honor Society Honorary Scholarship

 

LANGUAGES English, Spanish, German, and Cakchiquel. (Google it.)

 

PATENTS

Twenty (20) issued USA Patents, including Nos. 4,419,533,  4,435,445, 4,504,518, 4,517,223, 4,582,164, 4,594,973, 4,615,905, 5,226,067, 5,458,084 and 5,485,499;  Similar patents were granted in other countries. These are in the areas of x-ray windows, plasma assisted and photo assisted CVD, amorphous materials, thin films, thermoelectrics, barrier layers and contacts, magnetic materials, hard materials and optical materials.

Recent US patents: 5,226,067, [1993]

5,458,084- "X-ray Wave diffraction optics constructed by atomic layer epitaxy." [1995].

5,485,499- "High throughput Reflectivity and resolution x-ray dispersive and reflective structures for the 100 eV to 5000 eV energy range and method of making the devices," [1996].

Most recent Canadian patent is: 1,333,426. "X-ray Wave diffraction optics constructed by atomic layer epitaxy."

 

SUMMARY OF PUBLICATIONS

            Approximately 100 publications including a review article.

            Numerous invited talks and conference presentations.

            Seven conference sections organized and chaired.

            Co-organizer of two conferences.

            Four short courses given.

Books: Coeditor of two conference proceedings:  one on CVD, the other on thermoelectricity.

 

PROCEEDINGS EDITED FOR PUBLICATION 

PUBLICATION LIST Undergraduate student authors are underlined.  Graduate students with *.  Reviewing noted in italics. peer

2007-17

  1. Allred, David D.,  Turley R. Steven,  Thomas, Stephanie M., Willett, Spencer G., Greenberg, Michael J., and  Perry, Spencer B., "Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation," Proc. SPIE 10398,  UV/Optical/IR Space Telescopes and Instruments: Innovative Technologies and Concepts VIII, 1039834 (7 Sept. 2017)  ISBN: 9781510612532 final
  2. Heming He, Jaroslaw Majewski, David D. Allred, Peng Wang, Xiaodong Wen, and Kirk D. Rector, "Formation of Solid Thorium Monoxide at Near-Ambient Conditions as Observed by Neutron Reflectometry and Interpreted by Screened Hybrid Functional Calculations," Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, 288–296, 2017,  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311516306080   final draft
  3. Travis J. Moore, Matthew R. Jones, Dale R. Tree, and David D. Allred, "An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 187, 358-363 (2017). Doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.10.018  
  4. Barrett, L.K. ; Barton, D.J. ; Noyce, S.G. ; Allred, D.D. ; Vanfleet, R.R. ; Davis, R.C. "High-Aspect-Ratio Metal Microfabrication by Nickel Electroplating of Patterned Carbon Nanotube Forests," Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems,Volume: PP , Issue: 99 DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2015.2395954 Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1 pdf
  5.  He, HM (He, Heming)[ 1 ] ; Andersson, DA (Andersson, David A.)[ 2 ] ; Allred, DD (Allred, David D.)[ 3 ] ; Rector, KD (Rector, Kirk D.)[ 1 ] "Determination of the Insulation Gap of Uranium Oxides by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Density Functional Theory," JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, 117(32), 16540-16551, (2013) pdf.
  6. Heming He, P. Wang, D.D. Allred, Jaroslaw Majewski, M.P. Wilkerson, Kirk D. Rector, "Characterization of Chemical Speciation in Ultrathin Uranium Oxide Layered Films," Anal. Chem. 84(23), pp 10380-10387, (2012). peer
  7. Kellan Moulton*, Nicholas B. Morrill, Adam M. Konneker, Brian D. Jensen, Richard R. Vanfleet, David D. Allred, and Robert C. Davis,  "Effect of Iron Catalyst Thickness on Vertically Aligned Carbon nanotube Forest Straightness for CNT-MEMS," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering,  2012 preprint
  8. Lei Pei*, Amy Balls, Cary Tippets, Jonathan Abbott*, Matthew Linford, Jian Hu*, Arun Madan, David Allred, Richard Vanfleet, and Robert Davis, "Polymer Molded Templates for Nanostructured Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics," J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 29(2),  (2011) JVSTA-A-10-228R  author proof .
  9. J. A. Brame, J. E. Goodsell, S. A. Getty, Y. Zheng, and D. D. Allred, "Fabrication and Testing of a Strain-Based Carbon Nanotube Magnetometer Structure,"  The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2012, 88,  review version, peer
  10. 4. Heidi M. Dumais*, R. Steven Turley, David D. Allred, “Measurement of the Imaginary index of Refraction of UOx in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, & Letters, Provo, Utah, 87, 255-265, April 2011.
  11. R. Steven Turley, David Allred, Anthony Willey, Joseph Muhlestein, and Zephne Larsen, "Effective Medium Theory, Rough Surfaces, and Moth's Eyes,"   The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2009, 86, 273-286. last draft  peer
  12. Nicole Brimhall,* Nicholas Herrick, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, Michael Ware, and Justin Peatross, "Characterization of Optical Constants for Uranium from10 nm to 47 nm," Applied Optics Vol. 49, Iss. 9, pp. 1581-1585 (2010). peer accepted
  13. Bryan Hicks, Stephanie Getty, and David Allred, "Diode Properties of Nanotube Networks," Thin Solid Films, 518, 5014-5017 (2010).  pdf.  accepted.(TSF26908)  preprint. peer doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.10.155 
  14. Nicole Brimhall,* Nicholas Herrick, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, Michael Ware, and Justin Peatross, "Measured Optical Constants of Copper from 10 nm to 35 nm," Optics Express, Vol. 17 Issue 26, pp.23873-23879 (2009) pdf  in review.
  15. Jacqualine Jackson Butterfield and David D. Allred, "Determining the refractive index in the extreme ultraviolet using Kramers-Kronig on thin-film scandium oxide transmission data,"   The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2008, 85, 195-203. galley  peer
  16. Elisabeth Strein, David D. Allred,  "Eliminating carbon contamination on oxidized Si surfaces using a VUV excimer lamp," Thin Solid Films, 517 (3), 1011-1015 (2008)  final  preprint. peer

  17. Elisabeth Strein, David D. Allred, "Eliminating adventitious carbon contamination on SiO2 using a UV excimer lamp," Annual Technical Conference Proceedings,  (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 2008) 51,  448-452 (2008) rtf preprint. Conference reviewed.

  18. G. Acosta*, R. Vanfleet, D. Allred, and R. S. Turley, "Investigating Subsurface Interfaces of Thin Film Coatings Using Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy," Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 2008)  51, 443-447 (2008) pdf preprint. Conference reviewed.

  19. Nicole Brimhall*, Matthew Turner, Nicholas Herrick, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, Michael Ware, and Justin Peatross, "Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,"  REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 79, (10) 103108-1to7 (2008) Copyright (2008) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in (citation of published article) and may be found at (URL: http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/79/103108 DOI: 10.1063/1.2999543 or URL/link for published article abstract). article also chosen of : November 2008 issue of Virtual Journal of Ultrafast Science.  The Virtual Journal, which is published by the American Physical Society and the American Institute of Physics in cooperation with numerous other societies and publishers, is an edited compilation of links to articles from participating publishers, covering a focused area of frontier research.  You can access the Virtual Journal at http://www.vjultrafast.org  peer
  20. Johnathan Goodsell, Stephanie A. Getty, Jon Brame, and David D. Allred, "Thin-film iron-catalyzed "beads on a string" carbon nanotubes,"  The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2007, 84, 130-140.  Received 2007 Best Paper Award in Physical Sciences Section. (see journal p. iv)  Preprint. peer

  21.  David D. Allred, "Bounds And Conditions, A Kolob In Our Solar System?" Sunstone, March 2007, pp. 58.61. Final version

  22. Jon Brame, Stephanie Getty, Johnathan Goodsell, and David Dean Allred, "Strain-based Electrical Properties of Systems of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Parylene," in Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes — Science and Applications, edited by P. Bandaru, M. Endo, I.A. Kinloch, A.M. Rao (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 963E, Warrendale, PA, 2007),  paper # 0893-JJ05-09 @ . (Electronic papers only - No book published)  preprint: word. pdf. peer

    2006 and before.

  23. "Srinivasan Kannan*, Craig Taylor, David Allred, PECVD growth of Six:Ge1-x films for high speed devices and MEMS," Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 352, 1272-1274 (2006) SO or peer.
  24. William R. Evans, Sarah C. Barton, Michael Clemens and David D. Allred, "Understanding DC-Bias Sputtered Thorium Oxide Thin Films Useful in EUV Optics [6317-37]," in: Advances In X-Ray/EUV Optics, Components, And Applications, edited by Ali M. Khounsary, and Christian Morawe, Proceedings of SPIE, 6317, 631711-1 to 8 (2006). draft; pdf. SO
  25. Nicole F. Brimhall, Amy B. Grigg, R. Steven Turley, and David D. Allred, "Thorium-based mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet," [6317-36] in: Advances In X-Ray/EUV Optics, Components, And Applications, edited by Ali M. Khounsary, and Christian Morawe, Proceedings of SPIE, 6317, 631710-1 to 8 (2006) preprint. SO
  26. Donovan Chipman, Andrew Ning, and David Allred, "Intermediate Martian Atmospheric Study and Demonstration," edited by (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006)  preprint.
  27. William R. Evans and David D. Allred, "Determining Indicies of Refraction for ThO2 Thin Films Sputtered under Different Bias Voltages from 1.2 to 6.5 eV by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films Volume 515, Issue 3 , 23 November 2006, Pages 847-853.  Preprint. pdf  peer
  28. D. D. Allred, G. A. Acosta*, N. Farnsworth-Brimhall, and R. S. Turley, "Simultaneous Reflection and Transmission Measurements from Coated Diodes to Determine the  Optical Constants of Thin Films in the Extreme Ultraviolet," 49th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, Washington, DC, April 22-27, 2006, Vol. 49, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 2006) 314-318.  ISSN 0737-5921. Conference reviewed.
  29. Kristi Adamson, Shannon Lunt*,Richard Sandberg, Elke Jackson,  David Allred, R. Steven Turley , "Determining Composition of Thin Films of Uranium Oxide by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy," The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2005, 82, 176-186. Preprint. peer
  30. Jed E. Johnson, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, William R. Evans, and Richard L. Sandberg, "Thorium-Based Thin Films as Highly Reflective Mirrors in the EUV," in Actinides""Basic Science, Applications, and Technology, edited by Sarrao, A. Schwartz, M. Antonio, P. Burns, R. Haire, H. Nitsche (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 207-214; paper # 0893-JJ05-09 @ http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec_subscribe.asp?CID=6210&DID=167961SO  preprint: word. pdf.
  31. Guillermo Acosta*, David D. Allred, and Robert C. Davis, "A Technique for Measuring the Thin Film Thickness of Ultrathin Metallic Thin Films, 4-20 nm, using Atomic Force Microscopy," in The 48th SVC Technical Conference, in Denver, CO, Vol. 48, edited by Don Maddox, April 23-28, 2005  (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 2005) 707-713. 
  32. Also as:  Guillermo Acosta*, David D. Allred, and Robert C. Davis, "A Technique for Measuring the Thin Film Thickness of Ultrathin Metallic Thin Films, 4-20 nm, using Atomic Force Microscopy," a feature article as published in the 2005 Summer News Bulletin of the Society of Vacuum Coaters. pp 34-38. (Paper solicited for journal but not peer reviewed.)  http://www.svc.org/AboutSVC/News/NBS05.pdf
  33. David D. Allred, "Mars Jars," Proceedings from the International Mars Society Conference: 1999-2002, Frank Cross editor. Preprint pdf  & the pictures are in this file.  Powerpoint presentation ppt; pdf of ppt; 
  34. R.E. Robinson, R.L. Sandberg, D.D. Allred, A.L. Jackson, J.E. Johnson, W. Evans, T. Doughty, A.E. Baker, K Adamson, and A. Jacquier, "Removing Surface Contaminants from Silicon Wafers to Facilitate EUV Optical Characterization," 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, Dallas Texas, April 24-29, 2004, Vol. 47, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 2004) 368-376.
  35. L. J. Bissell, D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, W. R. Evans, J. E. Johnson, "Determining Ruthenium's Optical Constants in the Spectral Range 11-14 nm," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths," edited by Regina Soufli, and John F. Seely, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5538, (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2004) 84-91. word  SO
  36. Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred, Shannon Lunt, Marie K. Urry, R. Steven Turley, "Optical Properties and Application of Uranium-based Thin Films for the Extreme Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Region," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths," edited by Regina Soufli, and John F. Seely, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5538, (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2004) 107-118.  word  SO
  37. Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred, Luke J. Bissell, Jed E. Johnson, R. Steven Turley, "Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, San Francisco, California, 25-29 August 2003, AIP conference proceedings, ISSN: 0094-243X; v. 705, edited by Tony Warwick, et al. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2004) pp. 796-799. word  pdf. peer
  38. R. L. Sandberg, D. D. Allred, J. E. Johnson, R. S. Turley, "A comparison of uranium oxide and nickel as single-layer reflectors from 2.7 to 11.6 nm," in Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications, edited by Ali M. Khounsary, Udo Dinger, Kazuya Ota, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5193 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2004) 191-203.  SO word
  39. David D. Allred, "What the Universe Means to People Like Me," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 36(1), Spring 2003.
  40. David D. Allred, Matthew B. Squires, R. Steven Turley, Webster Cash, and Ann Shipley, "Highly Reflective Uranium Mirrors for Astrophysics Applications," in X-ray Mirrors, Crystals and Multilayers, Andreas K. Freund, Albert T. Macrander, Tetsuya  Ishikawa, and James. T. Wood, Editors, Proc. SPIE 4782 , pp 212-223 , SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2003. SO html preprint
  41. M. B. Squires, David D. Allred and R. Steven Turley, "The Optical Constants of Sputtered U and a Si at 30.4 and 58.4 nm," J. of the Utah Academy of Arts, Sciences and Letters-1999, 76, 74-87 (2002). Word (version without figures.) peer
  42. Shannon Lunt, R. Steven Turley, David D. Allred, "Design of Bifunctional XUV Multilayer Mirrors Using a Genetic Algorithm," J. X-Ray Science and Technology, 9(1), 1-11 (2001). Alternate version word peer
  43. B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, J. Chen, C. C. Curtis, R. A. King, T. C. Stone, R. H. Hill, J. Chen, O. H. W. Sigmund, R. Raffanti, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley,  D. L. Gallagher, "The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager Investigation for the IMAGE Mission," Space Science Reviews 91, 197-242 (2000). abstract  peer
  44. D.D. Allred, R. S. Turley, M. B. Squires, "Dual-function EUV multilayer mirrors for the IMAGE mission," in EUV, X-Ray and Neutron Optics and Courses, Carolyn A. Macdonald, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Juan R. Maldonado, H. Heather Chen-Mayer, Stephen P. Vernon, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3767, 280-287 (1999). SO pdf Text only.peer
  45. Osorio-Saucedo R, Vazquez-Lopez G, Calleja W, Allred DD, Falcony C, "Rotating electrochemical cell to prepare porous silicon with different surface structures," Thin Solid Films, 338 (1-2), 100-104 (JAN 29 1999). pdf   peer
  46. Matthew B. Squires, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, "The Optical Constants of Sputtered U and a-Si at 30.4 and 58.4 nm," in EUV, X-Ray and Neutron Optics and Courses, Carolyn A. Macdonald, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Juan R. Maldonado, H. Heather Chen-Mayer, Stephen P. Vernon, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3767,  288-294 (1999). SO  pdf rtf version
  47. G.B. Thompson and D.D. Allred, "Reactive Gas Magnetron Sputtering of Lithium Hydride and Lithium Fluoride Thin Films," J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 7, 157-170. (1997). pdf peer
  48. Steven E. Jones, David S. Shelton, R. Steven Turley, M. Jeanette Lawler and David D. Allred, "Raman spectrographic system for qualitative analysis of isotopic hydrogen mixtures for muon catalysis experiments," Hyperfine Interactions 101/102, 695-698 (1996).  peer
  49. Gary L. Catchen, William E. Evenson and David Allred, "Structural phase transition and Tc distribution in Hf-doped LaMnO3 investigated using perturbed-angular-correlation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54(6), 3679-82 (1996). peer          
  50. J. Gonzalez-Hernandez, B. S. Chao, S. R. Ovshinsky and D. D. Allred, "The Structure of W/C (0.15< <0.8) Multilayers Annealed in Argon or Air," J. X-ray Sci. Technol.  6(1), 1-31 (1996). peer
  51. D. L. Harper, R.G. Albridge, N.H. Tolk, Qi Wang, D.D. Allred and L.V. Knight, "Observation of beam-induced changes in the polarization of Balmer-α radiation emitted following beam-tilted-foil transmission," Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4631-9 (1995).  peer
  52. Qi Wang, and D.D. Allred, "Deconvolution of the Raman Spectrum of Amorphous Carbon," J. of Raman Spectr. 26, 1039-43 (1995).  peer
  53. F. Yuan, J. A. Johnson, D. D. Allred and R. H. Todd, "Waterjet cutting of cross linked glass," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(1), Jan/Feb 1995.  peer
  54. W.I. Karain, L. V. Knight, D. D. Allred and A. Reyes-Mena, "Emitted current instability from silicon field emission emitters due to sputtering by residual gas ions,"  J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 2581-85 (1994).   peer
  55. F. Ruiz, C. Vezquez-Lopez, Jesus Gonzelez-Hernendez, and David D. Allred, G. Romero-Paredes and R. Pe�a-Sierra and G. Torres-Delgado, "Mesostructure of photoluminescent porous silicon," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 2565-71 (1994).  peer
  56. Ming Cai, David D. Allred, and A. Reyes-Mena, "Raman spectroscopic study of the formation of t-MoSi2 from Mo/Si multilayers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1535-41 (1994). peer
  57. W.I. Karain, L. V. Knight, D. D. Allred and A. Reyes-Mena, "The Use of Sharp Silicon Tips as Photocathodes and Electron Sources for X-ray Generation," Nanostructure Materials 3, 419-426 (1993). (ISBN 0965-9773. Pergamon on web Elsevier Science Direct) peer
  58. Cheryl Barnett Davis, David D. Allred, A. Reyes-Mena, Jesus Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, Ovidio Gonzalez, Bret C. Hess, and Worth P. Allred, "Photoluminescence and Absorption studies of Defects in CdTe and ZnxCd1-xTe crystals," Phys. Rev. B 47, 13 363-13 369 (1993). peer
  59. Qi Wang, D.D. Allred, and Jesus Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, "The Low-Frequency Feature in First-Order Raman Spectrum of Amorphous Carbon," Phys. Rev. B 47(20), 6119-6121 (1993).  peer
  60. Ming Cai, Qi Wang, David D. Allred, L.V. Knight, Dorian M. Hatch, A. Reyes-Mena, Jesus Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, and Guizhong Zhang, "The Use of Raman Spectroscopy in Characterizing Soft X-Ray Multilayers:  Tools in Understanding Structure and Interfaces,"  Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Brian Newnam, Editor, Proc. SPIE, 1848, 24th Boulder Damage Symposium, Boulder, CO, October 28-30, 1992. SO
  61. David D. Allred, Ming Cai, Dorian Hatch, Qi Wang, and A. Reyes-Mena, "Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Mo/Si Multilayers," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 222-228 (1992). pdf  peer
  62. Douglas P. Hansen, A. Reyes-Mena, John Colton, Larry V. Knight, and David D. Allred, "Multilayer phase diffraction gratings modules as a structure in three dimensions,"  Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Lithography, Richard B. Hoover and Arthur B. C. Walker, Jr., Editors, Proc. SPIE  1742 (1992). SO
  63. W.I. Karain, Larry V. Knight, David D. Allred and A.  Reyes-Mena, "X-ray diode using a silicon field emission photocathode," Soft X-Ray Microscopy, Chris J. Jacobsen and James E. Trebes, Editors, Proc.  SPIE 1741 (1992), 12-18. SO
  64. W.I. Karain, Larry V. Knight, David D. Allred and A. Reyes-Mena, "Manufacturing of atomically sharp silicon tips and their use as photocathodes," Encyclia 69 257-272 (1992).  peer
  65. F. Yuan, Y. Shi, L.V. Knight, R.T. Perkins and D.D. Allred, "Using Thin Film Stress to Produce Precision, Figured X-ray Optics," Thin Solid Films, 220, 284-288 (1992). Abstrpeer
  66. J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, B.S. Chao, D.A. Pawlik, D.D. Allred, and Qi Wang, "Characterization of as-prepared and annealed W/C multilayer thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10(1), 145-151 (1992).  peer
  67. Memorie Williams, Evan Hansen, A. Reyes-Mena, and David D. Allred, "The Transmittance of Thin Polymer Films and their Suitability as a Support Substrate for a Soft X-ray TelescopeEUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy II, Oswald H. Siegmund and Richard E. Rothschild, Editors, Proc. SPIE 1549, 147-154 (1991). SO
  68. B.S. Chao, D.A. Pawlik, J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, Qi Wang, and D.D. Allred, "The effect of oxygen on the structure of annealed W/C multilayer thin films," Solid State Communications 79, 205-207 (1991). Abstr. peer
  69. B.S. Chao, J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, D.A. Pawlik, Qi Wang, and D.D.  Allred, "The effect of oxygen on the structure of annealed W/C multilayer thin films," (Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Series EA-21, Pittsburgh, PA, (1991), pp. 185-188. pdf
  70. J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, O. Zelaya, J.G. Mendoza-Alverez, El�as L�pez-Cruz, and D.D. Allred, "Structure and optical characterization of ZnxCd1-xTe thin films prepared by the close spaced vapor transport method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 550-4 (1991). peer
  71. C.M. Egert and D.D. Allred, "Light Absorbing Beryllium Coating Produced by Magnetron Sputtering," Stray Light in Optical Systems, Robert P. Breault, Editor, Proc. SPIE 1331, 170-178 (1990). SO
  72. Roland D. Seals, C.M. Egert, and D.D. Allred, "Advanced Infrared Optically Black Baffle Materials," Optical Surfaces Resistant to Severe Environments, Solomon Musikant and Robert P. Breault, Editors, Proc. SPIE 1330, 164-177 (1990). SO
  73. J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, El�as L�pez-Cruz, D.D. Allred, and W.P. Allred, "Photoluminescence Studies in ZnxCd1-xTe Single Crystals," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 3255-59 (1990).   peer
  74. El�as L�pez-Cruz, J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, D.D. Allred and W.P. Allred,  "Photoconductivity Characterization of ZnxCd1-xTe (0#x#0.25) Single Crystal Alloys," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 1934-38 (1990). peer
  75. K. Shurtleff, D.D. Allred, R.T. Perkins, and J.M. Thorne, "Deposition of Zinc Selenide by Atomic Layer Epitaxy for Multilayer X-Ray Optics," in Properties of II-VI Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures, and Dilute Magnetic Systems, J.F. Schetzina, F.J. Bartoli, Jr., and H.F. Schaake, Editors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Series 161, 109-114 (1990). SO
  76. J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, A. Reyes-Mena, D.D. Allred, El�as L�pez-Cruz, and W.P. Allred,  "Annealing Behavior of Photoluminescence lines in CdTe and ZnxCd1-xTe Single  Crystals," in Properties of II-VI  Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures, and Dilute Magnetic Systems, J.F. Schetzina, F.J. Bartoli, Jr., and H.F. Schaake, Editors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Series 161, 33-38 (1990). SO
  77. D.D. Allred, Wang Qi, and J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, "Characterization of Metal/Carbon Multilayers by Raman Spectroscopy,"  Layered Structures- Heteroepitaxy, Superlattices, Strain and Metastability, B.W. Dodson, L.J. Schowalter, F.H. Pollak,  and J.E. Cunningham, Editors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Series 160, 605-610 (1990). SO
  78. Raymond T. Perkins, David D. Allred, Larry V. Knight, and James M. Thorne, "Design of high-performance, soft x-ray windows," Advances in X-ray Analysis, 33, Charles S. Barrett, Editor (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 615-622. pdf  peer
  79. K. Shurtleff, D.D. Allred, R.T. Perkins, and J.M. Thorne, "Multilayer X-Ray Optics Produced by Atomic Layer Epitaxy," X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, Richard B. Hoover, Editor, Proc. SPIE 1160, 303-308 (1989). pdf SO
  80. Wang Qi, D.D. Allred, L.V. Knight, and J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, "Use of Raman Spectroscopy in the Characterization of Soft X-Ray Multilayer Reflectors," X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, Richard B. Hoover, Editor, Proc. SPIE 1160, 229-234 (1989). pdf SO
  81. R.T. Perkins, D.D. Allred, L.V. Knight, and J.M. Thorne, "Design of High-Performance Soft X-Ray Windows," X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, Richard B. Hoover, Editor, Proc. SPIE 1160, 56-65 (1989). pdf SO
  82. David D. Allred, "Accelerated Life Test for Thermoelectric Junctions:  Solder Element Interactions," Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX, 1988), pp. 137-140. pdf
  83. R.F. Edgerton and D.D. Allred, "Comparison of Effective Medium Procedures for Optical Modeling of Laminar Structures," Modeling of Optical Thin Film, M. Jacobson, Editor, Proc. SPIE 821, 167-173 (1988).  SO
  84. David D. Allred, "CVD of Optical and Energy Related Materials---A Survey," abstract No. 1164, Extended Abstracts 87-2, the172nd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1987), p. 1162.  Presented at the 10th International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 19-23, 1987. pdf  SO
  85. S.R. Ovshinsky, R.T. Young, David D. Allred, G. DeMaggio, and G.A. Van der Leeden, "Superconductivity at 155 K," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2579-2581 (1987). pdf  peer
  86. David D. Allred, R. Edgerton, J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez and  O.V. Nguyen, "Optical and Structural Properties of Heterobasis Amorphous Multilayers," Interfaces,  Superlattices and Thin Films, J. D. Dow and I.K. Schuller, Editors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 77, 567-572 (1987). SO
  87. J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, David D. Allred and O.V. Nguyen, "Anneal Induced Changes in Amorphous Semiconductor Multilayers," Interfaces,  Superlattices and Thin Films, J. D. Dow and I.K. Schuller, Editors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 77, 665-670 (1987). SO
  88. David D. Allred, J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, O.V. Nguyen, D. Martin, and D. Pawlik, "Raman Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of Amorphous Semiconductor Multilayer Interfaces," J. Mat. Res. 1, 468-475 (1986). pdf  peer
  89. O.V. Nguyen, David D. Allred and S.R. Ovshinsky,  "A New Multiphase Thermoelectric Material for Power Generation," Proc. of the Sixth Intern. Conf. on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, 1986), pp. 157-161.
  90. J. Gonz�lez-Hern�ndez, David D. Allred, O.V. Nguyen, D. Martin, and D. Pawlik, "Raman Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of Amorphous Semiconductor Multilayer  Interfaces," Layered Structures and Epitaxy, J.M. Gibson, G.C. Osbourn, and R.T. Tromp, Editors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 56, 389-394 (1986). SO
  91. David D. Allred, M.R. Jacobson, and E.E. Chain, "High Temperature Stable Selective Surfaces by Chemical Vapor Deposition," Solar Energy Materials 12, 87-129 (1985) (Review Paper).  peer
  92. N. Jackett, David D. Allred, T.H. Sein and J.U. Trefny, "Thermal Diffusivity by Modified Angstrom Technique," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, (The University of Texas at Arlington, 1984), pp. 116-119. 
  93. David D. Allred and J.A. Piontkowski,  "CVD Amorphous Germanium:  Preparation and Properties," Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition - CVD - IX, May 6-11, 1984 (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1984), p. 546-557. SO
  94. David D. Allred and J.A. Piontkowski, "CVD a-Ge and a-Ge:X Films:  Preparation and Properties," Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Chemical Vapour Deposition, EURO-CVD-FOUR, (Philips Centre for Manufacturing Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1983), p. 197. SO
  95. E. Randich and David D. Allred, "Chemically Vapor-Deposited  ZrB2 as a Selective Solar Absorber," Thin Solid Films 83, 393-398 (1981). peer
  96. David D. Allred, D.C. Booth, B.R. Appleton, P.D. Miller, C.D. Moak, J.P.F. Sellschop, C.W. White, and A.L. Wintenberg, "The Hydrogen Content of Multicomponent Amorphous Silicon Alloys," IEEE, Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-28, 1838-40 (1981).peer 
  97. David D. Allred, "Selective Surfaces by Chemical Vapor Deposition," Proceedings of the Second Annual Coating for Solar Collectors Symposium, St. Louis, MO, October 16-17, 1979 (Invited Paper). SO
  98. D.C. Booth, David D. Allred, and B.O. Seraphin, "Retarding Crystallization of CVD Amorphous Silicon by Alloying," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 213 (1980).   peer
  99. D.C. Booth, David D. Allred, and B.O. Seraphin, "Stabilized CVD Amorphous Silicon for High Temperature Photothermal Solar Energy Conversion," Solar Energy Mat. 2, 107-124 (1979).  peer
  100. M. Janai, David D. Allred, D.C. Booth, and B.O. Seraphin, "Optical Properties and Structure of Amorphous Silicon Films Prepared by CVD," Solar Energy Mat. 1, 11 (1979).   peer
  101. D.C. Booth, M. Janai, G. Weiser, David D. Allred, and B.O. Seraphin,  "Chemical Vapor Deposited Amorphous Silicon for Use in Photothermal Conversion," Optics Applied to Solar Energy IV, Proc. SPIE 161, 72-77 (1978). SO
  102. G.E. Carver, David D. Allred, and B.O. Seraphin, "Chemical Vapor Deposited Molybdenum for Use in Photothermal Conversion," Optics Applied to Solar Energy IV, Proc. SPIE 161, 66-71 (1978).  SO
  103. David D. Allred, C.W. White, G.J. Clark, B.R. Appleton, and I.S.T. Tsong, "Measurement of Hydrogen Profiles in SiO2 by a Nuclear Reaction Technique," The Physics of SiO2  and its Interfaces, Proc. of the Intern. Topical Conf. on the Physics of SiO2 and its Interfaces, held at the IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, March 22-24, 1978, Sokrates T. Pantelides, Editor (Pergamon Press, New York, 1978), pp. 210-214.  peer
  104. J.R. Ziegler, C.P. Wu, P. Williams, ....and David D. Allred, "Profiling Hydrogen in Materials Using Ion Beams," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 149, 19 (1978). peer
  105. G.J. White, C.W. White, David D. Allred, B.R. Appleton, F.B. Koch, and C.W. Magee, "The Application of Nuclear Reactions for Quantitative Hydrogen Analysis in a Variety of Different Materials Problems," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 149, 9 (1978).  peer
  106. G.J. Clark, C.W. White, David D. Allred, B.R. Appleton, C.W. Magee, and D.E. Carlson, "The use of nuclear reactions and SIMS for quantitative depth profiling of hydrogen in amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 582-585 (1977). pdf peer
  107.   J.E. Estrel, David D. Allred, J.C. Hardy, R.G. Sextro, and J. Cerny, "β-Delayed Proton Decay of 9C," Phys. Rev. C 6, 373-375 (1972). pdf  peer

 Links to other publications of BYU XUV group

  1. Elise Martin and R. Steven Turley, "Modeling the Effects of Surface R on Thin-Film Reflectance Roughness," the Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2007  peer
  2. N. Brimhall, J.C Painter, M. Turner, S.V. Voronov, R. S. Turley, M. Ware, and  J. Peatross, "Construction of an Extreme Ultraviolet Polarimeter Based on High-Order Harmonic Generation," [6317-34], in: Advances In X-Ray/EUV Optics, Components, And Applications, edited by Ali M. Khounsary, and Christian Morawe, Proceedings of SPIE, 6317, 63170Y-1 to 7 (2006). pdf  SO
  3. Amy Grigg, Kristi Adamson, Jed Johnson, Niki Farnsworth, and R. Steven Turley, "X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to Examine Molecular Composition," The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters-2004, 81, 213-221. peer

 Student Thesis and Dissertations. (DOS copies are available on some from allred@byu.edu)

Dissertations (Ph.D.) * signifies Allred was co advisor. Name may not be on thesis.

Name                           Date                             Title

Guillermo Acosta          Dec. 2007                     Scandium Oxide Thin Films and their Optical Properties in the Extreme Ultraviolet pdf.

Douglas P. Hansen*     Aug. 1997                    Fabrication, Measurement, and Analysis of Multilayer X-ray Diffraction Gratings

Ping Hu*                      Sept. 1994                   Theoretical Study on Domain Structure and Domain Walls in Phase Transition of LaAgxIn1-x

Kevin Shurtleff*            June 1994                    Atomic Layer Epitaxy for the Production of Multilayer X-ray Mirrors (Dep't. of Chemistry)

Ming Cai                      Dec. 1993                    The Raman Characterization of Silicon-Containing, Soft X-ray Multilayers

Fang Yuan                    Nov. 1991                   Characterization of Boron Films Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition and their Applications in X-Ray Imaging

Qi Wang                      Dec. 1990                    Raman Study of Amorphous Carbon

 

Theses (Masters)

Nichole F. Brimhall        July 2007                   Extreme Ultraviolet Polarimetry with Laser-Generated High-Order Harmonics pdf  (reader)

Jedediah Edward Jensen Johnson Dec. 2006    Computationally Modeling the Effects of Surface Roughness on Soft X-Ray  Multilayer Reflectors,    (Allred reader)

Srinivasan Kannan*,     July 2005                     PECVD Growth Of Six:Ge1-x  Films For High Speed Devices And MEMS, At the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, P. Craig Taylor, advisor  (Allred reader)

Guillermo A. Acosta     Aug 2004                     Developing a Technique for Measuring Thickness of Thin Films from 5 to 15 Nanometers, Using Atomic Force Microscopy

Shannon Lunt*             Aug. 2002                    Determining the Indices of Refraction of Reactively Sputtered Uranium Dioxide Thin Films From 46 to 584 Angstroms

Matthew Squires          Aug. 2001                    The Measurement (58.4-164.0 nm) and Analysis (40.0-600.0 nm) of the Atomic Scattering Factors of Diamond and Graphite

David P. Balogh*         April 2001                    Student Attitudes and Performance in an Online General Education Physical Science Course

David T. Oliphant*       Dec. 2000                    Characterization of Uranium, Uranium Oxide and Silicon Multilayer Thin Films

Sterling W. Cornaby*   June 2000                    Using a Charged-Coupling Device (CCD) to Gather X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Information Simultaneously

David Rich Miller*        April 1998                    A Simulation of Synthetic Aperture Stellar Interferometry Using Post Acquisition Time Correlation

Pavel Brovkin               April 1998                    The Physics of Low-Capacitance JFETs

Bryan Royce Olsen*     Dec. 1996                    High Voltage Pulse Generator For A Capillary Discharge X-ray Laser

Cheryl Barnett Davis     Dec. 1991                    Deep-Level Photoluminescence of ZnxCd1-xTe

 

Honors Theses (dos copies are available on some from allred@byu.edu)

Richard Hansen            June 2012                      Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Carbon-Nanotube-Templated Metallic Microstructures                     

Amy Grigg                    June 2007                    Oxidation Effects on the Optical Constants of Heavy Metals in the Extreme Ultraviolet (Allred reader) Presentation

Jacqualine Dee Jackson April 2007                   Determining the Refractive Index of Scandium Oxide in the EUV Using Kramers-Kronig on Thin-Film Transmission Data.pdf. ppt

S. Andrew Ning           June 2006                    Creation of an Intermediate Environment and Utilizing Switchable Microwave Absorbent Material to Aid in Performing Work on Mars. Draft: Word

William R. Evans          Sept. 2005                   Determining Optical Constants for ThO2Thin Films Sputtered under Different Bias Voltages from 1.2 To 6.5 eV by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry   pdf word presentation

Nichol Farnsworth*      March 2005                 Thorium-based Mirrors in the Extreme Ultraviolet

Richard L. Sandberg     June 2004                    Optical Application of Uranium Thin Film Compounds for the Extreme Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Region

Jedediah E.J. Johnson   June 2004                    Thorium Based Mirrors for High Reflectivity in the EUV. Word  presentation

Joseph S. Choi             June 2000                    In Situ Ellipsometry of Surfaces in an Ultrahigh Vacuum Thin Film Deposition Chamber. (Fig. separately) Presentation. Main fig. Appendix own right

Steven L. Tait, Jr.*       June 2000                    A Comparative Study of Various Display Formats of Speech Frequency Spectra to Aid Lip Readers

Shannon Lunt*             March 1999                 The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization

Matthew B. Squires      March 1999                 On Determining the Optical Constants of Sputtered U and a-Si at 304 and 584

Adam Fennimore          Feb. 1998                   Morphology and Oxidation of U/AI and UN/Al Multilayer Mirrors

 

Senior Theses  are also available at BYU Physics & Astronomy Website by year.

Brandon McKeon        April 2015                Preparation of SiO2 layers by oxidizing silane with N2O

Jason Kyle Anderson    April 2014                 Developing Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques of Tungsten on Carbon Nanotube Microstructures

Collin Brown                April 2014                  Infiltration of CNT forests by Atomic Layer Deposition for MEMS Applications

James Schwab              April 2013                  Investigations of the Causes of Expansion for Yttrium Oxide Films; (Capstone)

Jordan Bell                    Jan. 2013                   Thickness Uniformity Of Uranium Oxide Films Sputtered While Undergoing Planetary Motion

 Richard Hansen            July 2012                   Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Carbon-Nanotube-Templated Metallic Microstructures

Alison Wells                 Aug. 2011                   Determining The Cause Of Metal Oxide Film Growth Due To Exposure To Vacuum Ultraviolet Light

Devon Mortensen        Aug. 2010                    Determining The Cause Of Yttria Film Growth Due To Exposure To Vacuum-Ultraviolet Light

Jonathon A. Brame       April 2009                   Selectively Grown Silicon NanoWires for Transistor Devices

Elisabeth Strein             Aug 2008                    Studying and Eliminating Adventitious Carbon Contamination on Silicon Wafers

Michael Rasmussen      April 2008                   Vacuum Ultraviolet Photo-oxidation of Carbon Nanotubes

Elise Martin                  April 2007                   Surface Roughness Correction to Extreme Ultraviolet Thin Film Reflectance Measurements (Allred reader)

Luke Bissell                 Aug 2004                     Determining Ruthenium's Optical Constants in the Spectral Range 11-14 nm

P. Douglas Archer        June 2004                    Determining Favorable Environments for Endolithic Growth: UV considerations.

Kristi R. Adamson        April 2004                    Determining Chemical Composition of Sputtered Uranium Oxide Thin Films through X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Marie K. Urry*            Dec. 2003                    Determining Optical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin Films in the Extreme Ultraviolet (1.6-35 nm)

Ross Robinson             Aug. 15, 2003              Removing contaminants from silicon wafers to facilitate EUV Optical Characterization.

Ryan Camacho             May 2003                    Microstructural Analysis of Copper Thin Films for Characterization of Stress-Induced Voiding Mechanisms

Raymond Rios*            Aug. 15, 2003              Developing a Polarimeter to Determine the Optical Constants of Materials in the XUV

Cort Johnson                April 2001                   Developing an Improved Extreme Ultraviolet Filter       

Gregory Thompson       June 1996                   Reactive Gas Sputtering of Lithium Compound Thin Films

Senior Capstone Projects

James Schwab              April 2013                   Investigations of the Causes of Expansion for Yttrium Oxide Films;

Bryan Hicks                 April 2008                   Diode Properties of Nanotube Networks  BYU dept version

Robert Gillis                 April 2007                   Determining the Extreme Ultraviolet Constants of Thoria by Spectral Ellipsometry.

Nicholas Webb            Nov. 2004                   The Oxidation Rates of Vanadium

Yenny N. Martinez       May 2002                    Studying the Optical Properties of the NPD Mirrors.  BYU dept version

GRANTS: COMPLETE LIST LAST 1999-2007

"Evaluation and removal of peelcoat layers." Stewart Observatory, May-Sept. 05 (R0802009)

"NIST Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program,"  (Cooperative Agreement #70NANB5H1074) May-Sept. 05. Student Jacque Jackson to NIST

"Computer Support for Doctoral Research: Guillermo Acosta," Subaward # KMD5273-1-1/SUB; Prime # HRDO114712; Minority Graduate Education at Mountain State Alliance ASU; Jan. 20, 2005-Jan. 19, 2006.

"Thin film Si-Ge allys," Lockheed-Martin, July -Dec. 2004

The most recent WAESO are:

"Mirror for the ESA Venus Express Spacecraft," #S2004UR0081, WAESO, 2004

"Oxidation rates of very thin copper films," #S03UR002 WAESO, 2003.

 "Determining the optical properties of materials for making EUV multilayer reflectors," Project #S02UR014, 2002.

"A polarimeter for determining the optical properties of materials for making EUV multilayer reflectors," # V02UR017, summer 2002

Principle investigator for a two-year project to prepare a set of three EUV mirrors for the IMAGE mission which was launch March 25, 2000. MARATHON

 

PRESENTATIONS OF THE EUV GROUP (reverse chronological order) 2002- PRESENT (partial list)

2016

30th Annual Student Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 19, 2016  Provo, UT.  presentations by  students of Allred, R. Steven and Richard R. Vanfleet.

108th  Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Westminster College, Salt. Lake City, Mar. 10, 2016, Students: ABS and pptProgram  

2015

Colloquium for the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Metallurgy, Univ. of Utah Wed. Oct, 28, 2015, "Development of Broadband Reflective Coatings in Preparation for LUVOIR Space Observatories." ppt

American Vacuum Society, 62nd Annual International Symposium, October 18-23, 2015, San Jose, CA  abstracts

29th Annual Student Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 21, 2013  Provo, UT.  presentations by 3 students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (

2014

American Vacuum Society, 61st Annual International Symposium, November 9-14, 2014, Baltimore MD abstracts

Annual Meeting of the Four Corners Section of the APS, October 18-19, 2014 Utah Valley University,  two presentations. on thin films on CNT

28th Annual Student Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 15, 2014  Provo, UT.  presentations by 3 students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (

2013

American Vacuum Society, 60th Annual International Symposium, October 28-31, 2013, LongBeach CA, abstracts

Annual Meeting of the Four Corners Section of the APS, October 18-19, 2013 University of Denver,  two presentations. on thin films and CNT

27th Annual Student Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 9, 2013  Provo, UT. 3 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (

2012

Departmental Colloquium, Dec. 2012

Annual Meeting of the Four Corners Section of the APS, October 26�27, 2012; NM Highlands, Socorro, New Mexico  abs Jordan Bell, B5.00007 Optical Constants of Uranium Oxide Thin Films, 1.25 to 6 eV, ppt.

39th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings And Thin Films, San Diego, CA, Apr. 23-27. 2012,  Richard Hansen, et al,   "Carbon-Nanotube-Templated Metallic Microstructures for MEMS: Preparation and Characterization," abs

104th Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Utah State University, Logan. UT, April 13, 2012, Students: James Schwab, "The Anomalous Growth of Yttria Films in Controlled Atmospheres,"

26th Annual Student Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 17, 2012,  Provo, UT. 3 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (two won outstanding papers in their sessions.)

2011

Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society October 21-22, 2011, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ abs. Richard S. Hansen et al, and Brett Barstrom

Colloquium for the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Metallurgy, Univ. of Utah Oct, 5, 2011, "EUV Optics and the Incredibly Expanding Film." ppt as pdf

Technologies for Future Micro-Nano Manufacturing, August 8 - 10, 2011, Silverado Resort & Spa, Napa, CA USA, "Carbon Nanotube Templated Microfabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Metal Structures,"  David McKenna, Richard Hansen, Brian D. Jensen, Richard R. Vanfleet, Robert C. Davis, and David D. Allred.

103rd Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Salt Lake Community College, Salt. Lake City, April 8, 2011, Students: ABS and pptProgram 

25th Annual Student Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 19, 2011,  Provo, UT. Presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley:

Colloquium for Honors. University Rover Challenge, BYU Thursday 10 Feb. 2011 ppt

Colloquium for Department of Chemical Engineering,  Brigham Young University, Jan. 13. 2011, Provo UT,Applications of carbon nanotubes, David D. Allred

2010

American Vacuum Society, 57th Annual International Symposium, October 17-22, 2010, Albuquerque NM, abstracts

Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society October 15-16, 2010, Weber State University, Ogden Utah  Program

BYU NSF sponsored REU: final reports August 2010 by Kristal Chamberlain  ppt of presentation

13th International Conference of the Mars Society, Friday Aug.5-8, 2010, Dayton OH

Hilton Head Workshop 2010: 12th Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop, Sponsored by the
Transducer Research Foundation, Inc, Hilton-Head Crowne Plaza Resort 130 Shipyard Drive Hilton Head Island, SC, June 6-10, 2010. abs Open poster

16th Annual Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship Symposium, Salt Lake Community College,  UT, May 10, 2010; Adam Konneker for Nicholas Morrill

2010 Annual Meeting of the Idaho-Utah Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers.  & Saturday April 30, 2010 at Idaho State University in Pocatello, ID David Allred. ABS ppt

102nd Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Dixie State College, St. George, April 9, 2010, Students: ABS and ppt,  Program 

24th Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 20, 2010,  Provo, UT. 4 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (two won outstanding papers in their sessions.)

Colloquium for Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utah Valley State University, March, 3 2010, Orem UT,Applications of carbon nanotubes, David D. Allred pdf

 

2009

15th Annual Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship Symposium, Salt Lake Community College,  UT, May, 4, 2009;  Joseph Muhlestein, "The Index of Refraction of Y2O3 in the Extreme Ultraviolet"

101st Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, BYU, Provo  April  10, 2009, Student:  Jon Brame, "Selective Growth of Silicon Nanowires for Transistor Devices" (also Nathan Woods(BYU) and Dr. S. A. Getty (NASA GSFC)

2009 Annual Meeting of the Idaho-Utah Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers.  March 27 & Saturday March 28, 2009 at Brigham Young University in Provo, UT David Allred. ABS ppt

23rd Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 21, 2009,  Provo, UT. 4 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (t

o won outstanding papers in their sessions)

2008

Microstructured Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Composites, at GSFC, Greenbelt MD, Thursday, December 18, 2008, at 11:00am in Building 30 conference room (183) Prof. David Allred, BYU.  Talk was based on talk of Robert C. Davis, BYU
Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society October 17-18, 2008,12th, at the University of Texas El Paso, TX,  program,   Group talks   ms doc version
Posters for Homecoming:
October 10, 2008,  Jon Brame   Thomas McConkie
International Conference of the Mars Society, Friday Aug. 14-17, 2008, Boulder Co
Microscopy & Microanalysis 2008
NM Aug. 3-7  2008,  Use of a commercial RF Plasma Cleaner in eliminating adventitious carbon contamination in an XPS system,  Elisabeth Strein. abs poster
14th ICSFS 2008 Conference > 29 June-04 July, Dublin, Ireland > www.icsfs.ie, Preparation, Storage, Characterization and Use of Bilayer Reflectance Standards for VUV and EUV Optics, abs  ppt.
14th Annual Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship Symposium, Salt Lake Community College,  UT, May, 5, 2008
35th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings & Thin Films
, April 28-May 2, 2008, San Diego, CA program titles
51st SVC Annual Technical Conference April 19-24, 2008, Hyatt Regency Chicago, Chicago IL. www.svc.org,  2 presentations, G. A. Acosta and E. Strein. Both in Proceedings.
2008 Material Research Society Spring Meeting, March 24 - 28, 2008, Moscone West and San Francisco Marriott, Vacuum Ultraviolet Photo-oxidation of Carbon Nanotubes M. R. Rasmussen, D. D. Allred Wednesday Poster  Abs
2008 Annual Meeting of the Idaho-Utah Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers.  March 28 & Saturday March 29, 2008 at Boise State University in Nampa, ID Cluster Ballooning Exam Questions, David Allred. ABS ppt
100th Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, U of Utah, SLC, March 21, 2008,
Students: ABS  Program 
APS
22nd Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 15, 2008,  Provo, UT. 4 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (two won outstanding papers in their sessions)

2007

2007 Material Research Society Fall Meeting,  November 26 - 30, Boston, MA Hynes Convention CenterSymposium II: Nanotubes and Related Nanostructures, SESSION II15: Poster Session: Physical Properties and Devices, Wednesday Evening, November 28, 2007 abstracts, PPT.

Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society October 19-20, 2007, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ;  talks

Homecoming Posters:  Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Magnetometer for Planetary Exploration, John Brame

Physics 191: Sept. 12, 2007 Space Instruments

10th International Conference of the Mars Society, Friday Aug.31, 2007, Los Angeles, CA   Experience of BYU team at the 2007 University Rover Challenge, Abs. Word

Optical Interference Coatings: Topical Meeting and Tabletop Exhibit June 3-8, 2007 Loews Ventana Canyon Resort and Spa Tucson, Arizona; Reflecting at 30.4 and Antireflecting at 58.4 nm, David D. Allred and R. Steven Turley  abs. pdf

13th Annual Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship Symposium, Salt Lake Community College,  UT, May, 7, 2007

99th Annual Meeting of the Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, SUU Cedar City, Utah April 13, 2007, students: Johnathan Goodsell, Bryan Hicks (for Jon Brame), Elise Martin and Sarah Barton.
Annual Meeting of the Idaho-Utah Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers.  March 23 & Saturday March 24, 2007 at Utah State University in Logan, Utah, How BYU Students Did on the 2006 Physics GRE, David Allred abs

45th AAS Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium: March 20-21,2007, The Inn and Conference Center by Marriott in Adelphi, Maryland. Poster. Strain-based Electrical Properties of Systems of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Parylene. Jon A. Brame, Johnathan Goodsell, Stephanie A. Getty and David Dean Allred;

NASA Headquarters ESMD (Exploration Systems Mission Directorate), Washington, DC, March 19, 2007  Lunch talk. On the Goddard-BYU Collaboration to Prepare Nanocompasses Based on SWCNT. Stephanie A. Getty, Jon Brame and David D. Allred.

21st Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 17, 2007,  Provo, UT. 4 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley: (Brame, JonGrigg, Amy; Martin, Elise; and Barton, Sarah )

American Physical Society, Denver Co Tues March 6, 2007 H23.00014 Scandium Oxide Thin Films and Their Optical Properties in the EUV, Guillermo Acosta, David Allred, Steve Turley and Richard Vanfleet

Colloquium at UVSC, Orem UT 21 Feb. 2007.Optical Constants of Sputtered Thoria Thin Films Useful in EUV Optics from IR to EUV, David Allred

 

2006

2006 Material Research Society Fall Meeting,  November 27 - December 1, Boston, MA Hynes Convention Center. Symposium Q: Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes -- Science and Applications, SESSION Q20: Poster Session: Thermal, Optical and Mechanical Properties and Applications: Biological Interactions,  Thursday Evening, November 30, 2006. 

  Q20.18 Strain-based Electrical Properties of Systems of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Parylene. Jon A. Brame, Johnathan Goodsell, Stephanie A. Getty and David Dean Allred; (Getty is a staff scientist at the Materials Engineering Branch, Code 541, NASA -- Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.)  abs,  end of summer presentation

 Q20.61 A Single-walled Carbon Nanotube-based Nanocompass for High Spatial Resolution Magnetometry. Stephanie A Getty, Jonathon A Brame, Johnathan E Goodsell, Melissa A Harrison, Gunther Kletetschka and David D Allred. 

 

America Vacuum Society 53rd Annual Meeting on November 13, 2006, Convention Center, SF, CA, Session Title: Surface Science Poster Session,

What is the Band Gap of Thoria?, W. R. Evans, S. C. Barton, D. D. Allred, and T. E. Tiwald, Abstract Number: 1181, Program Number: SS-ThP4 ( Thursday November 16, 2006, 5:30 PM)

BYU Astronomical Society, Planetarium Show. Oct. 13, 2006, Mars

 

Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society October 6-7, 2006 [Meeting ID: 4CF06] Utah State University, Logan, UThttp://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/4CF06/Event/55727

 Surface Contamination and Oxidation on Thin Films, poster presented by Liz Strein and Amy Grigg

http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/4CF06/Event/55727

 

America Vacuum Society Rocky Mt. Section on Sept. 21, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2006,

Surface Contamination and Oxidation on Thin Films, poster Liz Strein and Amy Grigg

 

51st Annual Meeting, SPIE, Aug. 14-16, San Diego, CA.Advances In X-Ray/EUV Optics, Components, And Applications SESSION 7-8, Conv. Ctr. Room 17B Wed. Optical Constants and Measurement Technique,

             9:00 am: Using reflection from coated diodes to help determine optical constants, D. D. Allred, G. Acosta, N. F. Brimhall, J. Johnson, D. Muhlestein, R. S. Turley, Brigham Young Univ. [6317-33]

9:20 am: Construction of an extreme ultraviolet polarimeter based on high-order harmonic generation, N. F. Brimhall, A. Baker, R. S. Turley, J. Peatross, Brigham Young Univ. [6317-34] 

10:30 am: Thorium-based mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet, N. F. Brimhall, E. Martin, R. S. Turley, Brigham Young Univ. [6317-36]

10:50 am: Using spectroscopic ellipsometry (1.2 to 6.5 eV), AFM, and XRD to understand bias sputtered Thoria thin films, W. R. Evans, S. C. Barton, M. Clemens, D. D. Allred, Brigham Young Univ. [6317-37]

 

9th International Conference of the Mars Society, Friday Aug. 3-6, 2006, Washington, DC 

            Intermediate Martian Atmospheric Study and Demonstration, Donovan Chipman, Andrew Ning, and David Allred, abs.

 

The 9th International Conference on Space Operations hosted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), 19-23 June 2006 in Rome, Italy, Session 68- ME-25, Intermediate Martian Atmospheric Demonstrator, Donovan Chipman, Abs. PPT

 

12th Annual Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship Symposium, Salt Lake Community College,  UT, May, 8, 2006

 

International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings & Thin Films, May 1-5, 2006, San Diego, CA

            Determining Optical Constants for ThO2 Thin Films Sputtered Under Different Bias Voltages from 1.2 To 6.5 eV by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, William R. Evans and David D. Allred. ppt

 

49th SVC Technical Conference, April 24-28, 2006 in Washington DC

            Simultaneous Reflection and Transmission Measurements of Scandium Oxide Thin Films in the Extreme Ultraviolet,  G. Acosta, D. Allred, S. Turley, and N. Farnsworth. 9:10 a.m. Opt. Films, Tuesday apt. 27 @ 9:10

 

Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, April 7, 2006, Ephraim, UT;  Physical Sciences Division of the 2006 Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters Meeting at Snow College,   

            Optical Constants for ThO2 Thin Films from 1.2 to 6.5eV by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, William R. Evans and David D. Allred.

            Spectrally Tunable Light Source for Remote Ocean-Color Sensing, Jacque Jackson, Brigham Young University and Steven Brown, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD

Computationally Modeling the Effects of Surface Roughness on Extreme Ultraviolet         MultilayerReflectors, Jedediah Johnson and R. Steven Turley,

Extending our Reach into the Extreme Ultraviolet Using a Grazing Incidence Monochromator, Sarah C. Barton  ***

 

20th Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, Sat. March 18, 2006,  Provo, UT. 8 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley:

 

Colloquium for Department of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Feb. 9, 2005, Provo UT, Planetary Exploration Projects. David D. Allred.

 

2005

2005 Material Research Society Fall Meeting,  November 28 - December 2, Boston, MA Hynes Convention Center.

Uranium & Thorium for EUV and Soft X-ray Optics, Jed E. Johnson, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, William R. Evans, & R. L. Sandberg

 

Physics 191: EUV Astronomy & Venus Express

 

Fourth International Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) Symposium 07-09 November 2005 San Diego, California

EUV Photodiodes with Directly Deposited Uranium Filter, by Raj Korde et al., poster presented by Raj Korde (International Radiation Detectors, Inc.) see also http://www.sematech.org/meetings/announcements/7470.htm

 

America Vacuum Society 52nd Annual Meeting on November 3, 2005, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA

Thin Film Optical Constants in the EUV using Simultaneous Reflection and Transmission Measurements, D.D. Allred, G.A. Acosta, R.S. Turley, J.E. Johnson, K.R. Adamson, presented by G.A. Acosta Thursday, November 3, 2005, 11:40am, Room 306. abs.

 

Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society at University of Colorado, October 14-15, 2005, Boulder CO

Spectrally Tunable Light Source for Remote Ocean Color Sensing, Jacqualine Jackson 25 MB

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to Examine Molecular Composition, Amy Baker, Best presentation award.

 

8th International Conference of the Mars Society, Friday Aug. 11-14, 2005, Boulder, CO 

Green thumbs for the red planet. Kyrstle Farnsworth, Nichole F. Brimhall, Jacque Jackson, and David D. Allred, Presented by Krystle

An Intermediate Environment for Mars Exploration, Andrew Ning. Manuscript for proceedings.

 

Summer Meeting of the AAPT, Salt Lake City, UT, August 6-10, 2005 

Physical Characterization of EUV Mirrors Using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Nathaniel Powell, Steve Turley, David D Allred, and David Oliphant

Optical Constants for ThO2 Films Sputtered Under Different Bias Voltages, William Evans, David D Allred

Surface Roughness of Thorium Based Mirrors in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Marian D Harrison, Niki Farnsworth, and Steve Turley

 

11th Annual Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship Symposium, Salt Lake Community College, Salt Lake City, UT, May, 9, 2005

A New Technique for the Measurement of Thin Films in the Extreme Ultraviolet: Simultaneous Collection of Reflection and Transmission, Guillermo Acosta, David D. Allred

Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Sarah Barton, Steven Turley (Poster Session)

Optical Properties of Reactivity Sputtered ThO2 Thin Films for EUV Applications, William Evans, David D. Allred, Steven Turley (Poster Session)

Green Thumbs for the Red Planet, Nicole Farnsworth, David D. Allred (Poster Session)

Model of Atomic Level Roughness, Marian Harrison, Steven Turley (Poster Session)

Physical Characteristic of X-Ray and EUV Mirrors using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Nathan Powell, Steven Turley (Poster Session)

 

48th SVC Technical Conference, April 24-48, 2005 in Denver, CO

A Technique for Measuring the Thin Film Thickness of Ultrathin Metallic Thin Films, 4-20 nm, using Atomic Force Microscopy, G. Acosta, Poster Session on April 25, 2005.

Experimental Determination of Scandium Thin Film Optical Constants from 10-1000 nm, G. Acosta, D.D. Allred 

 

Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, April 15, 2005, Orem, UT

Characterizing Reactively Sputtered ThO2 Films for EUV Applications, William R. Evans, Amy Baker, and D.D. Allred; Christian Contreras-Campana (Mt. San Antonio College)-BYU REU 2004

Surface Roughness of Thorium and Thorium Oxide and its Effect on Optical Properties in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Nichole Farnsworth, R. Steven Turley; Christian Contreras-Campana (Mt. San Antonio College)-BYU REU 2004

Modeling Surface Roughness, Marian Harrison, R. Steven Turley

Determining the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide Thin Films in the EUV from Reflection and Transmission Measurements, Jedediah Johnson, Guillermo Acosta, Elise Martin, David Muhlestein, Nichole Farnsworth, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley

Cleaning Silicon Wafers with CO2 Snow Jet, Andrew Jacquier, William Evans, David D. Allred

Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the UV, Sarah Barton

Miller on Mars, Anne Potter, Sarah Barton, Tiffany Brown, Nichole Farnsworth, Amy Baker, Matt Christensen, David D. Allred, Gary Booth

Green Thumbs for the Red Planet, Jacque Jackson, Nichole Farnsworth, David D. Allred

Creation of "Intermediate Environments" and Other Aids in the Exploration of Mars, Krystle Farnsworth, S. Andrew Ning, Rob Gillis, Brian Riddle, David D. Allred

 

19th Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, March 19, 2005,  Provo, UT. 13 presentations by students of Allred & R. Steven Turley:

Experimental determination of scandium thin film optical constants, from 10-1000 nm; Guillermo Acosta, David D. Allred,   

Molecular Composition as Examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Amy Baker, R. Steven Turley.  Presentation

Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the Ultra-Violet, Sarah Barton, R. Steven Turley.  Presentation

Small Photons, Big Atoms, and Things that go "Bump" in the Dark: Or Ellipsometric Determination of Visible Wavelength Optical Constants for Thorium Dioxide Thin Films Deposited Under Different Bias Voltages, William R. Evans, David D. Allred.  Presentation

Surface Roughness of Thorium and Thorium Oxide and its Effect on Optical Properties in the Extreme Ultraviolet Nicole Farnsworth, R. Steven Turley; Presentation

Model of Atomic Level Roughness, Marian Harrison, R. Steven Turley   Presentation

Green Thumbs for the Red Planet, Jacque Jackson, David D. Allred, Nicole Farnsworth. Presentation

Silicon Wafer Cleaning for EUV Reflectance measurements by cold, high-pressure CO2 jet, Andrew Jacquier, David D. Allred. Presentation

Highly Reflective Thorium-Based Mirrors, Jedediah Johnson, David D. Allred. Presentation

Thorium Dioxide Thin Films in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Elise Martin, & David Muhlestein, R. Steven Turley Presentation

Improved Extra Vehicular Activity by use of a Pressurized Martian Atmosphere, Andrew Ning, David D. Allred   Presentation

Miller on Mars, Anne Potter, David D. Allred   Presentation

Physical characterization of x-ray and EUV mirrors using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient,Nathaniel Powell, R. Steven Turley, David D. Allred, and David Oliphant.  Presentation

Life, The Universe, and Everything, Friday, February 18, 2005, BYU

Mars Exploration, Habitat and other issues.

2004

America Vacuum Society 51st Annual Meeting on November 17, 2004 in Anaheim, CA

            Optical Properties of Uranium and Thorium-Based Thin Films as Highly Reflective EUV Mirrors,  D.D. Allred, J.E. Johnson, W.R. Evans, N. Farnsworth, A.E. Baker, R.S. Turley

            Determining Physical and Chemical Properties of Sputtered Uranium and Thorium Thin Films Useful as Extreme Ultraviolet Reflectors, R.W.L. Larsen

7th International Conference of the Mars Society, Friday Aug. 20, 2004, Chicago, Ill,

            Green thumbs for the red planet. Nichol Farnsworth, David D. Allred, Presented by Niki.on Friday

49th Annual Meeting, SPIE, July 2004, Denver, CO.

            Uranium oxide and uranium nitride as highly reflective coatings from 2.7 to 11.6 nanometers, R. L. Sandberg, Allred  

             Determining Ruthenium's Optical Constants in the Spectral Range 11-14 nm, L. J. Bissell, D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, W. R. Evans, J. E. Johnson

47th Annual SVC Technical Conference Preliminary Program, April 26-30, 2004, Dallas, TX

            How to have Clean Surfaces in an Unclean World, R. Sandberg, J. E. Johnson, K. Adamson, R. Robinson, D. D. Allred et al.  Presented by Andrew Jacquier. 

International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings & Thin Films, April 19-23, 2004, San Diego, CA.,  

            Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 2.7 to 11.6 Nanometers, R.L. Sandberg, D. D. Allred, R. S Turley, S. Lunt, and J. E. Johnson  

            Highly Reflective Thorium-based Mirrors, J.E. Johnson, D.D. Allred, R.S Turley,  

Determining Ruthenium's Optical Constants in the Extreme Ultraviolet from 11-14 nm, L.J. Bissell, D.D. Allred, and R.S Turley,

Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters Annual Conference April 13, 2004 at Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah

            Surface Roughness of Thorium and Its Effect on Optical Properties in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Nicole Farnsworth

            Determining Reflectance of Uranium Nitride Thin Films in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Mary Urry, R. Steven Turley and David D. Allred

Astrobiology Science Conference 2004, March 28-April 1, 2004, NASA Ames Res. Center, Moffett Field, CA Determining Favorable Environments for Endolithic Growth from Physics Considerations, P. Douglas Archer, David D. Allred

AAPT ID-Utah Section 2004 Annual Mtg, March 27, 2004, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID

            Mars Jars: Mini Mars Environments for Student Science Projects, D. D. Allred

18th Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, March 20, 2004, Provo, UT.

**** Dr. Allred: Richard's 04 spr research

Life, The Universe, and Everything, Friday,  February 19, 2004, BYU  The Mars Missions;  David Allred, Danny Farnsworth, Eric Christiansen, Doug Archer

2003

America Vacuum Society 50th Annual Meeting on November 5, 2003 in Baltimore

 Physically Measuring the Thickness of Thin films via Atomic Force Microscopy, G Acosta, D. Allred and R. Davis.

 Sc/V Multilayer Mirrors: Working Towards High Reflectivity in the Extreme Ultraviolet, G Acosta, D. Allred and R. Davis.

Annual Meeting of the Four-Corners Section of the American Physical Society at Arizona State University, October 24-25, 2003, Tempe, AZ.

 Mars Desert Research Station, Nicole Farnsworth, David D. Allred

 Optical Constants of Uranium Nitride in the XUV (80-182eV), Marie Urry, Kristi Adamson, Luke Bissell, R. Steven Turley, David D. Allred

Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 2.7 to 11.6 Nanometers, Richard L. Sandberg, Jed E. Johnson, William R. Evans, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley.

Determining Composition through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy,   Kristi Adamson,

Removing Surface Contaminants from Silicon Wafers to Facilitate EUV Optical Characterization, Jed E. Johnson, Ross Robinson, David D. Allred, Richard L. Sandberg, R. Steven Turley, Kristi Adamson, and Aaron Jackson,

Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, San Francisco, California, 25-29 August 2003,

Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV, Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred, Luke J. Bissell, Jed E. Johnson, R. Steven Turley

6th International Conference of the Mars Society, Aug. 15, 2003, Eugene. Oregon

Determining Favorable Environments for Endolithic Growth from Physics Considerations, P. Douglas Archer, and David D. Allred,

48th Annual Meeting, SPIE, August 7, 2003, San Diego, CA.

Do uranium and thorium compounds have a role to play as coatings for 200-300 eV synchrotron optical elements, R. L. Sandberg, D. D. Allred, S. Lunt, J. E. Johnson, R. S. Turley, K. R. Adamson, Brigham Young Univ.

International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings & Thin Films, San Diego, CA May 1, 2003.

Highly Reflective Uranium Mirrors for Astrophysics Applications, D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, K.     R. Adamson; Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University; and S. Lunt,

Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, April 11, 2003, Logan, UT.

Applications for Uranium-based X-Ray Mirrors, Richard Sandberg

Highly Reflective Thorium-Based Mirrors for Astrophysics Applications, Jed E. Johnson, David Allred

Determining Chemical Composition through X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Kristi Adamson

Determining the Index of Refraction of Materials in the EUV with Polarimeter, Raymond Rios

Celebrate One Year of the Abruptor-A Performance Study, Guillermo Acosta (Best paper award)

Ruthenium Optical Constants in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Luke Bissell

AAPT ID-Utah Section 2003 Annual Mtg, March 29, 2003, Weber State University, Ogden, UT

Promoting Student Learning using Classroom Communications. David D. Allred,

17th Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, March 15, 2003, Provo, UT.

Quick and Accurate Characterization of Scandium Thin Films, Guillermo Acosta

Determining the Optical Constants of Materials in the EUV with a Polarimeter, Raymond Rios, Fabian Walter

Determining Composition through X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Kristi Adamson

Ruthenium Optical Constants in the Extreme Ultraviolet, Luke Bissell, David Allred                 

Preparing Surfaces for EUV/XUV Measurements, Ross Robinson, Bill Evans, Jon Johnson

Uranium-based Telescope Mirrors for the Quarter Kilovolt Region (250 eV), Richard Sandberg

Atomic Granularity and the EUV, Danelle E. Brown, R. Steven Turley

Celebrate One Year of the Abruptor - A Performance Study, Guillermo Acosta

Corroboration of ALS and Monochromator Data and Monochromator Improvements, Elke Jackson

Colloquium for Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utah Valley State University, March 6,    2003, Orem UT.  EUV and Soft X-ray Optics, Thin Films and Outer Space: What you can do for your local          universe, David D. Allred,

2002

American Vacuum Society 49th Symposium Tuesday November 5, 2002, Denver, CO.

How to have Clean Surfaces in an Unclean World, R. Robinson, D.D. Allred, A. Guillermo, R. Sandberg, A. Jackson, M.K. Newey. #1307

How thick is my Oxide? D.D. Allred, S. Lunt  #1402

Study of the Oxidation Rates of Vanadium and Scandium, N.D. Webb, G.A. Acosta, D.D. Allred

Scandium and Vanadium Multilayer Mirrors: Working towards High Reflectivity in the Extreme Ultraviolet, G.A. Acosta, D.D. Allred, N.D. Webb,

(APS) Four Corners Meeting at University of Utah, October 4-5, 2002, Salt Lake City, UT.

Cleaning of Hydrocarbon Buildup on Metallic Thin Films, Richard Sandberg, David Allred,             Ross Robinson, Aaron Jackson,

Determining Composition by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Kristi Adamson, Shannon            Lunt, Matthew Squires, R. Steven Turley, D.D. Allred,

Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (OSA/APS Laser Science XVIII), Oct. 2002,          Orlando, FL.

Polarized Extreme Ultraviolet Reflectometer Using High Harmonic Generation, S.L. Voronov,     D.D. Allred, J. Peatross,

5th International Conference of the Mars Society, Aug. 15, 2003, Boulder, Colorado

Mars Jars: How Students can build inexpensive, Mini Mars Environments for Science and engineering projects, David D. Allred, Paul M. Allred, Thomas Riddle, & John I. Allred.

47th Annual Meeting, SPIE, July 2002, Seattle, WA.

Uranium-based Mirrors for Soft X-ray Reflectors, D.D. Allred, S. Lunt, Matthew Squires, R.            Steven Turley,

Utah Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, April 12 2002, Logan, UT.

 Physically Measuring Thickness' of Thin Films via Atomic Force Microscopy, Guillermo A.                      Acosta, David Allred, Robert Davis, Nick Webb,

Study of Oxidation Rates of Vanadium, Nick Webb, David Allred, Guillermo Acosta,

Uranium Oxides: Oxidation and Complex Index of Refraction, Kristi Adamson, Richard     Sandberg, Shannon Lunt, Elke Jackson, R. Steven Turley, David D. Allred,

16th Annual Spring Research Conference of the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, BYU, March 16, 2002, Provo, UT   Various.
Monochromator Improvements and Focusing, Elke Jackson,
Obtaining soft x-ray constants across the 2p edge in Fe films by resonant magnetic scattering experiments of polarized soft X-rays, Fabian Walter
Oxidations Rates of Vanadium, Nick Webb
Building and Testing an XUV polarimeter, Raymond Rios

Dual Mirror Optical System for use with Grazing Incidence Spectrograph, Ryan Anderson,

Optical Properties of Thin-film Uranium Oxide in the XUV, Shannon Lunt

American Physical Society, March 2002, Indianapolis, IN.

Studying the Optical Properties of the NPD Mirrors, Yenny Martinez, Mike Newey, Maria Bell,      D.D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, 

Optical Properties and Characterization of Thin-film Uranium Oxide in the XUV, Richard             Sandberg, D.D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, Shannon Lunt, Elke Jackson, Kristi Adamson,            Maria Bell,

2001

IMAGE Satellite presentation made to the SLC Astronomical Society, February 2001

CONFERENCES ORGANIZED AND/OR SESSIONS CHAIRED

.         David D. Allred, "Optical Materials and Process Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Applications," SPIE Conference 428, San Diego, CA, August 23-24.

.         David D. Allred, Material Session of the 5th International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, University of Texas at Arlington, March 14-16, 1984.

.         David D. Allred, Panel Session on the Future of Thermoelectricity at the 6th International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, University of Texas at Arlington, March 12-14, 1986.

.         David D. Allred, Session on CVD for Optics and Energy Related Applications, 10th

International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 19-23, 1987.

.         David D. Allred, Panel Session on the Future of Thermoelectricity at the 7th International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, University of Texas at Arlington, March 17, 1988.

.         I organized a symposium (Symposium V) for the 1991 Spring Meeting of the Materials Research Society, entitled Modern Perspectives on Thermoelectrics and Related Materials. At the meeting I chaired sessions on Silicon-Germanium Thermoelectrics (May 1) and appeared on Late news (May 1). The symposium which had about 35 presentations was held in Anaheim, CA, May 1-2, 1991. I oversaw the reviewing, editing and preparing of selected papers from the symposium for publishing as Modern Perspectives on Thermoelectrics and Related Materials, published September 1991.

.         David D. Allred, Panel Session on the Future of Thermoelectricity at the Eleventh International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, Arlington, Texas, October 9, 1992.

.         Larry Knight, James Thorne and I organized a conference on the future of soft x-ray science and technology entitled  "Soft X-Rays in the 21st Century," held in Provo, Utah on February 10-13, 1993.

.         Steve Turley and I organized the second conference on the future of soft x-ray science and technology entitled  "Soft X-Rays in the 21st Century," held in Midway, Utah on January 8-11, 1997.

10.       Session Organizer "Optical Constants," SPIE Conference 5538, Denver, Co, August 2-6, 2004

SHORT COURSES TAUGHT

.         Section on Metallization at the Seminar on Metal-Organic and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition for Semiconductor Applications, Deerfield Beach, FL, February 9-11, 1987.

.         Section on Microwave Deposition at the Second Seminar on Metal-Organic and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition for Semiconductor Applications, Deerfield Beach, FL, February 8-10, 1988.

.         Generalidades sobre Crecimiento de Pel�culas Delgadas y Procesos de Ataque a Superficies, (An Overview of Thin Growth and Etching Processes) given at the IX Congreso de F�sica de Superficies e Interfaces, sponsored by the Sociedad Mexicana de Ciencia de Superficies y de Vacio, A.C., Zacateca, Mexico, August 22, 1989, 6-7 hours. The president of the society informed me that my contribution to the conference earned me "most valuable player" status. Both the short course and the plenary talk I gave were in Spanish.

.         An Overview of Thermoelectricity, SCT-93 Short Course on Thermoelectrics Nov. 8, 1993, in conjunction with the 12th International Conference on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, Yokohama, Japan

OFFICES HELD

.         International Thermoelectric Society, Secretary-Treasurer, 1988-91. Member of the Board 1991-94.

In March 1988 I aided in the organization of the International Thermoelectric Society at the Seventh International Conference of Thermoelectric Energy Conversion by distributing to attendees a proposal and prospective charter for the organization. The proposal was accepted and I was elected the secretary-treasurer of the new society. During the following years Professor Allred worked to get a charter written and approved, a newsletter started, the regular organization of conferences every year instituted, and the election and rotation of officers begun.

These goals were achieved. The Society now has approximately 120 members; one issue of the newsletter has been distributed and another is in process. The newsletter is reproduced, addressed and distributed at BYU.

CONSULTING

On International, Inc., CVD and Alternate Energy for various groups including Solar Energy Research Institute; Voltaix; a large glass company; Michigan Consolidated Gas; several x-ray optics companies; Galtech Semiconductor Materials, Inc.; MOXTEK; Curatech, Inc. Ford Motor Company

            Occasional lecturer at high schools and elementary schools.

COMMUNITY SERVICE

Scoutmaster 1987-91.Committee chairman: 1997-present

Cubmaster 1984-86 and 1991-93.

Various LDS Church responsibilities

List service to professional organizations:

Prof. Allred was coorganizer of the Tenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition held October 1987.  Specifically he organized the session on energy-related and optical application of chemical vapor deposition and gave an invited talk on this topic. At the invitation of the Sociedad Mexicana de Ciencia de Superficies y de Vacio, A.C. and the American Vacuum Society Dr. Allred gave a short course and a plenary invited talk at the IX Congreso Nacional de F�sica de Superficies e Interfaces (Aug. 21-25, 1989).  The seven hour short course was entitled "Generalidades sobre el Crecimiento de Pel�culas Delgadas y de Procesos de Ataque a Superficies" ("Overview of Thin Film Growth and Etching Process").  The title of the plenary talk was "Structure of Amorphous Semiconductors in Ultrathin Films and Multilayers."  Both presentations were given in Spanish.

At the Second Seminar on Metal-organic and Plasma Assisted CVD for Semiconductor Applications, Feb. 1988, David Allred gave an invited talk on the Use of Microwaves in the deposition of thin films.

Short Courses attended

                        The summer of 1997 I attended a Chautauqua on results of gender research for women succeeding in the natural science, engineering and mathematics.  Many of the issues covered are also important for underrepresented minority students.  In the summer of 1997 I was also named an Alcuin teaching fellow for excellence in teaching at BYU.  The summer of 1998 I attended a Chautauqua on the C3P method of teaching Conceptual Physics.

             I attended an NSF Chautauqua summer 1999 on retaining minority students in SEMT in Dayton, Ohio under the direction Prof. Craig Nelson of Indian University.  We discussed a number of subtle ways students are pointed away from careers and advanced training in SEMT.  I also attended the Chautauqua on Workshop Physics for Electricity and Magnetism  in July 1999. I have served on the board of directors of MSA

            David D. Allred, the project director, is a professor of Physics and Astronomy at BYU.  I am an active participant in collaborative research between the USA and Mexico including spending a sabbatical year in Mexico in the fall of 1993 and being the plenary speaker at a Mexican national conference.  I have had experience previously with the CIMD reviewing proposals and in 1991, had a student supported by CIMD who participated in ongoing undergraduate research and published a paper based on her research.

            I have been active in research for 30 years.  I spent seven years as the leader of a research group in an industrial lab.  During the last thirteen years I have been a professor at BYU and had nine graduate students reporting directly to me.  There are another five for whom I have had partial responsibility.   Of these three have finished the PhD, four others have completed a master's degree.  Of equal satisfaction and success has been interactions with undergraduate students in research.  I have had 40 work closely with me; most of those who have graduated are now in graduate schools including Cornell, Caltech, MIT, Rice, the University of Colorado, the University of Wisconsin and the University of Utah.  Four now are on the faculty of major universities.  There are currently twelve students who I supervise or co-supervise.

            Research specialty:

Applied physics and material science.  Specific emphasis on thin film preparation and characterization, specifically the CVD and sputter preparation of ultrathin films and multilayers for x-ray applications  and their characterization via optical and electrical techniques especially including the use of Raman and photoluminescence.  The specific materials studied include solid-state semiconductors, particularly amorphous semiconductors such as a-Si, a-C, a-B and a-Ge and compound telluride semiconductors such as ZnCdTe.  I have been very active in supporting and forwarding undergraduate research.  We were contracted in 1997 to prepare multilayer mirror surfaces for IMAGE satellite project.

Graduate students Six students have worked directly with me in completing their advanced degrees. Three Ph.D. and three MS.  In addition two are working with me at the present.  In addition, I have aided eight of Professor Larry Knight's students in finishing their work, one of Professor James Thorne's students in finishing his degree and one electrical engineering student.

Innovated the use of microwave plasma enhanced CVD as a high  rate, feed stock efficient production method of materials including photoconductive grade a-Si:H.

This led to major ECD industrial activities  including the first and only technologically useful process for a-Si  alloy  "xerographic drums." The derived ECD patents had a loan value of more than $20,000,000 in 1986.

Headed team which developed low cost, elevated temperature contact for tellurides.  This made possible ECD's introduction of low cost, mass produced thermoelectric power generators.

Developed a low cost, high temperature stable, oxidation resistant IR reflector material to replace platinum---CVD ZrB2.

Devised thin film optical methods to maximize light trapping which increased the efficiency of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells by one-quarter.  These include methods for making boosted mirror back reflectors and methods for achieving total internal reflection.

Invented a nonalloy method for controlling the crystallization temperature on amorphous semiconductors---This may be potentially important for optical recording. 

Established a world record (based on ultra thin multilayers) for atomically abrupt interface in amorphous semiconductor multilayers. 

Developed laser Raman techniques for probing the interfaces in periodic multilayer structures. 

Other contributions:

            Thermoelectric Materials  

Group leader in the research of photovoltaic materials chemistry and photothermal materials.

Development projects in hard magnets, protective and colored coatings, magnetic disk coatings, fiber optics, and hybrid device.

Co-principal investigator for two DOE contracts totaling $250,000 annually.  In charge of the preparation laboratory, aiding approximately ten graduate students and several visiting scientists in planning and preparation of thin layer selective absorber stacks for high-temperature photothermal conversion, with emphasis on amorphous silicon and refractory metals.