Title: USING THIN-FILM STRESS TO PRODUCE PRECISION, FIGURED X-RAY OPTICS
Authors: YUAN F, SHI Y, KNIGHT LV, PERKINS RT, ALLRED DD
Source: THIN SOLID FILMS 220 (1-2): 284-288 NOV 20 1992
Abstract: We are studying the possibility of producing precision, aspherical mirrors for X-rays and visible light. Our study examines the use of ultrastructure processing to replace mechanical methods of material removal. The method starts with a chemically-mechanically polished, flat silicon wafer. The aim is to preserve atomic scale smoothness of the surface wafer while the wafer is bent to a desired figure. We report measurements of the mechanical properties of various stressing layers. This involves measuring the deformation of several thin silicon wafers coated with chemically vapor deposited nickel and boron films of known thickness. We have found that, under normal conditions, the film does not add to the microroughness of the substrate on either the front or the back surfaces. Film and substrate thicknesses, however, vary by as much as 10%. This is the present limit on figure accuracy. We have developed a model that describes bending of B/Si and Ni/Si structures. The model relates stress and Young's modulus to the measured thickness of the film, and the thickness and curvature of the substrate. This approach is used to measure the stress and Young's modulus for boron and nickel films. The Young's modulus E(f) was 3.05 x 10(12) Pa for the boron films and 1.4 x 10(10) Pa for the nickel films. From the relationship developed and verified for predicting the radii of curvature of the substrate, it may be possible to define a film thickness pattern which would provide a desired optical figure.
Addresses: YUAN F (reprint author), BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV., DEPT PHYS & ASTRON, PROVO, UT 84602 USA
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV., CTR. X-RAY IMAGING, PROVO, UT 84602 USA
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE, PO BOX 564, 1001 LAUSANNE 1, SWITZERLAND